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Job Opportunities After an M Pharmacy Pharmaceutics Course

M Pharmacy (Pharmaceutics) is a two-year post-grad program offered by prominent universities all over the nation. The essential eligibility criteria to get admission in this course is B. Pharmacy with 55% marks and 50% marks in case of candidate belonging to the reserved category from UGC recognized university.

After completing the M Pharmacy course, graduates are hired as project assistants at research institutes and research fellows. They are expected to assist and work on particular projects that enable them to gain experience in the research field. Also, their experience helps them to move ahead efficiently and effectively.

Prominent medicine companies such as Cadila, Glenmark, Dr.Reddy’s Lab, Cipla, and more are offering deserving positions to capable candidates. Also, these companies provide campus placement where students get better opportunities to demonstrate their skills and knowledge. A qualified graduate can also apply for jobs over the globe.

m pharmacy course

There are several options that students can opt right after completing M Pharmacy. Some of the most apt options are the following:

For Higher Studies:

After completing M Pharmacy, students can either choose for a Ph. D. program or apply for M Pharmacy Practice to upgrade their skills and knowledge. Students can also apply for an MBA program from any prominent university to gain proficiency as an entrepreneur. The completion of higher studies in M Pharmacy is opening doors for students to acquire more elevated positions in the chemical, medicine, and universities, and research institutes.

Clinical Research

Aspirants after M Pharmacy can work as a Clinical Programmer. These professionals are required to coordinate and monitor various duties in laboratories. Also, they are responsible for implementing data management plans designed to meet project and protocol deadlines. Apart from this, clinical programmers are consulting in the design and development of clinical trials, protocols, and case report forms. Moreover, they analyze and evaluate the clinical data, recognize inconsistencies, and initiate the resolution of data problems.

Production

In the present time, new medicines and vaccines are appearing in pharmacy industries for production. Most of the prominent companies hire qualified graduates to work in their manufacturing units. Initial pay for these professions is not very high but as they gain experience and expertise they get a handful of salaries with better opportunities. The growth rate in the pharmacy line is quite high. Manufacturing units are not only producing medicines, chemicals, and cosmetics.

Scientist

M Pharmacy Graduates can acquire scientist positions in Research & Development and Formulation and Development. This is the field where new medicines and vaccines are discovered by scientists every day. People who have qualified degree are eligible to work in this domain as scientists. Lots of research and formulation of medicines and vaccines are taking place all over the globe. Candidates can use their expertise and skills to develop new vaccines, chemicals, and medicines.

Quality Control:

The primary duty of these professionals is to develop, apply, revise, and maintain quality standards for processing materials into partially finished or finished products. These professionals are also designing and implementing methods and procedures for inspecting, testing, and evaluating the precision and accuracy of products and preparing documentation for inspection testing procedures.

Professor

After completing the Pharmacy post-grad program, aspirants can teach and train new candidates who want to make their careers in the Pharmacy industry. They can work as an assistant professor or professor. This job is considered as one of the most reputed and trustworthy employment in this industry. They are responsible for providing complete information on practicals and theory to students and developed encyclopedia between students.

m pharmacy job

Overseas Careers:

Students who want to make their career in M Pharmacy choose to apply in foreign countries such as the USA, the UK, Australia, and other European countries. Students need to qualify for English tests such as GRE, TOEFL, and IELTS, etc. to get a job in foreign countries. Also, students can continue with higher studies programs in various countries over the globe.

Why Pharmacy Course SGT University

  • SGT University is grooming its students with qualities like leadership, professionalism, orientation, community work, and collaboration.
  • We are delivering quality education with all innovative ideas and excellence.
  • Our campus has a modern infrastructure with well-equipped labs and laboratories.
  • Our curriculum is designed and planned according to the new norms and guidelines provided by UGC.
  • We are recognized by the Pharmacy Council of India
  • We are providing extended dimension to the students through webinars, seminars, workshops, and field trips.

m pharmacy

To know more about these programs such as eligibility criteria, admission process, and other queries you can visit our official website https://sgtuniversity.ac.in/ or contact us through the mail, phone, or social media platforms.

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Scope of Physiotherapy: Courses, Careers, Responsibilities, Salary

Faculty Name: Faculty of Physiotherapy

Duration of Course: 8 Semesters + 6 Months Internship

Eligibility: Age of 17 years or more on 31st December of the year of admission.

10+2 with at least 50% marks in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and English taken together.

Healthcare is a vast industry where aspirants make their careers in various domains. Candidates who want to rehabilitate patients by treating them with the help of exercises, massages, and physical activities can become Physiotherapists. Graduates from this course can prevent and cure physical dysfunctionalities in patients. Physiotherapy is considered the branch of healthcare that examines, diagnoses, treats, and instructs patients to improve their movement dysfunction, bodily malfunction, physical disorder, disability, healing & pain from trauma & disease, and physical & mental conditions. Physiotherapists utilize various physical agents, including exercise, mobilization, manipulation, mechanical, and electrotherapy devices, to treat patients. The high rise of industrialization and mechanization is the outcome of the high demand and scope of physiotherapy not only in India but also in abroad.

A Physiotherapist, also known as a Physical Therapist, is a vital part of the healthcare team responsible for treating patients without medicines by the use of exercise, manual therapy, rehabilitation techniques, and physical activity. The primary work of a physiotherapist is to help patients recover or rehabilitate from neurological, musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, sports, geriatrics, oncology impairments, and other incapable states. It is also a physical therapist’s responsibility to restore the patients’ body to its possible functional level.

Physiotherapists also play an essential role in preventing injuries that include on-field sores and treating them according to their needs. Also, it is the therapist’s responsibility to address not only the damage but also help patients control the impact of the injury to avoid future abnormalities.

Courses offered under the faculty of Physiotherapy:

  • B. Sc. (Sports & Exercise Science)
  • Bachelor of Physiotherapy (BPT)
  • Master of Physiotherapy (Cardiopulmonary)
  • Master of Physiotherapy (Neurology)
  • Master of Physiotherapy (Orthopedics)
  • Master of Physiotherapy (Sports)
  • Master of Physiotherapy (Community Rehabilitation)
  • Master of Physiotherapy (Obstetrics & Gynaecology)
  • D (Neurology, Cardiology, Sports, Orthopedics)

Career Options in Physiotherapy

  • Consultant Physiotherapist in Multi-specialty Hospitals, Health Care Centers, NGOs
  • Corporate Physiotherapist in MNCs
  • Health Care Physiotherapy Instructor in Gym
  • Ergonomic Care Advisor
  • Physiotherapist in Special Schools for Physically Challenged Children
  • Physiotherapist in Old Age Residential Homes
  • Sports Physiotherapists along with Sports Associations, Sports Team, individually hired physiotherapists by elite athletes
  • Entrepreneurs in Rehabilitation Centers/ Organizations
  • Private Practitioners running Private Physiotherapy Practice
  • Lecturer
  • Clinical Researcher

Why Physiotherapy at SGT University?

  • SGT University has modern medicine hospital attached to it to provide maximum exposure to the students
  • We have highly competent, compassionate, and qualified faculty members.
  • State of the art research center, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy labs are available for students.
  • Depart of physiotherapy has well-established libraries.
  • SGT University has Smart class facility with well-equipped labs

To know more about these programs such as eligibility criteria, admission process, and other queries you can visit our official website https://sgtuniversity.ac.in/ or contact us through the mail, phone, or social media platforms.

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Careers in Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences

Course Highlights

Course Level: Bachelor

Duration: 5.5 years (4.5 years of educational program+1 year internship)

Examination Type: Semesters

Top Recruiting Companies: Ministry of AYUSH, Ministry of Health, Government of India, National Institute of Naturopathy (NIN), etc.

Job Positions: Naturopathy Physician, Therapist, Assistant Research Officer, Naturopathy Consultant, etc.

Naturopathy is a branch of healthcare sciences that deals with the study of techniques and methods that help the human body to heal naturally. It purifies the body without any assistance from allopathic prescriptions and innovative equipment such as massaging machines, etc. The body is permitted to clean and fix its safe framework, hormonal framework, excretory framework, sensory system, and so on. Naturopathy adjusts the body’s self-mending power with the frames by giving usually acquired medications to illnesses. Authorized Naturopath or Naturopathic Physicians as a rule work in centres alongside patients in analyzing side effects, issues, and clinical status. They customize treatment conventions for each patient, alongside examining the patient’s way of life, propensities, filtering patients’ afflictions or sensitivities to discover pieces of information liable for the present status.

The level of the Bachelor of Naturopathy and Yoga Science centres on the training of working inconsistently with the manifestations of the patient’s body and different responses. Contemplating these manifestations is significant for the Naturopaths since they accept that each individual’s side effects can contrast by the reason for the sickness and in this manner require an alternate treatment approach. Things like passionate inclinations, biomechanics just as the natural chemistry of the patients, are used for treating sickness.

They are familiar with various procedures of controlling eating routine, exercise, and a back rub, which is utilized to treat afflictions and sickness. Students are delivered the development information on powerful recuperate, helping to neither anti-microbial nor substitute prescriptions. They are guzzled with the abilities to have tolerance and experiencing the qualities and shortcomings before beginning the treatment for the ailment.

Bachelor in Naturopathy course involves building an overall establishment in regards to wellbeing and nutrition. Students trying to take up the program should be acceptable wellbeing for rehearsing and instructing yoga. Post the finishing of the program, and they can proceed to seek after a future capability in the fields of nourishment, yoga, or naturopathy for increasing further information on the area.

Students are delivered preparing through training and projects to impart an overall comprehension of the subject. After the culmination of the program, candidates can proceed to pick their vocation in administrative associations, for example, Ministry of Health, Government of India, Ministry of AYUSH, Central Council of Research in Yoga and Naturopathy (CCRYN) and substantially more. Confirmation in Naturopathy course targets supporting understudies in the general field by guzzling in them the basics and standards of the segment.

Naturopathy Course Students

Bachelor in Naturopathy: Eligibility Criteria:

The eligibility criteria for admission to a Bachelor in Naturopathy are as follows:

  • Aspirants must have qualified 10+2 with a minimum aggregate of 50% from a recognized educational board.
  • Students must have physics, chemistry, and biology as compulsory subjects.
  • Aspirants should have a healthy body and mind.

Essential skillset for Naturopathy

For aspirants trying for Naturopathy, they have to have a lot of aptitudes that are comparable to that of the aspirants of MBBS. This is because the investigation of Naturopathy is very like the course of MBBS. A portion of the significant range of abilities and instructive respectability that are fundamental for being a Naturopath is as per the following:

  • Avid learning capacity as the field of medication is ever-evolving.
  • Capability in thinking, measurement, reasoning, and calculation
  • Capacities like reasonable judgment, basic reasoning, passionate strength, and development.
  • Characteristics of morals like uprightness, sympathy, and worry for other people
  • Enthusiasm for research
  • Scholarly capacity and passionate dependability
  • Great vision, hearing, and other tactile modalities
  • Adequate engine abilities to have the option to lead exercises like palpation, auscultation, percussion, and other indicative treatments on patients.
  • Affectability to patients’ wellbeing and prosperity
  • Exceptional observational abilities in patients who are in the way of mending
  • Should have outstanding relational abilities

Bachelor in Naturopathy: Career Prospects:

Bachelor in Naturopathy course opens a broad scope of chances for competitors wherein they can proceed to seek after educating and practice in government offices, for example, Ministry of AYUSH, Ministry of Health, Government of India, research committees remembering Central Council for Research for Yoga and Naturopathy (CCRYN), National Institute of Naturopathy (NIN), Research Centers, Hospital Administration, Management and Administration, Spa Centers, Private Clinics, Healthcare Centers, and considerably more.

They can choose to become a Naturopathy Physician, Therapist, Assistant Research Officer, Naturopathy Consultant, Naturopathy Experts, Publication Officer, Naturopathy Consultant, Research Officer, and much more.

bachelor of naturopathy & Yogic Science

Why study Bachelor of Naturopathy at SGT University:

  • SGT University has highly qualified and experienced faculty
  • We have an influential academic advising committee
  • A well-developed educational plan that provides ample experiential learning to the students to face industry challenges
  • A multi-disciplinary curriculum that allows candidates to explore various aspects of natural health care modalities
  • Students train extensively at our various clinical institutions like SGT Naturopathy & Yoga OPD and Wellness centre, SGT Allopathic Hospital and SGT Ayurveda and SGT Homeopathic Hospitals

To know more about these programs such as eligibility criteria, admission process, and other queries you can visit our official website https://sgtuniversity.ac.in/ or contact us through the mail, phone, or social media platforms.

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Best B.Sc. Courses After 12th

Science is one of the most famous streams of study in India and in light of current circumstances when students are seeking job-oriented courses. Not just it is the door to probably the most rewarding and generously compensated vocations in India, for example, Engineers, Doctors, Architects, Scientists, and so forth yet it additionally widens the extent of profession decisions for aspirants.

This can be supposed to be one reason why numerous students favor the science stream even in a day and age when the idea that trade is for non-performing candidates is getting wiped out quickly.

While at one purpose of time Engineering wore the crown for the most mainstream decision for science students, it is quickly moving toward immersion point. These days, science aspirants are not just increasingly inspired by Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) programs, they are likewise looking for confirmation in courses that were in any case however indeed flighty decisions, for example, Arts, Design, Fashion, Animation and so forth.

Along with this, if you are bewildered about which course would be the best to take up after twelfth in Science, read on to acquire knowledge on probably the best routes for science students after twelfth class.

Bachelor of Science (B.Sc)

Probably the most well-known course choice after Engineering and Medical are the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) programs. Numerous aspirants try to take admission in the best B.Sc universities in India in various fields as there is a high demand for science graduates in the market.

BSc or Bachelor of Science is a 3-year program and aspirants can apply for this course after class 12. Albeit all the major B.Sc. programs are offered in the field of core science, some are accessible for business and commerce students too. In this article, we have secured the most popular BSc courses after class twelfth that are accessible for science candidates.

In this article, you can discover insights regarding what courses can be taken up after twelfth in Science alongside the significant subjects.

B.Sc Admission Eligibility Criteria

To get admission in BSc course I any govt or private university in India, students need to fulfill the following criteria:

Successful completion of class 12th with PCM, PCB, or PCMB, depends on the course specialization that you choose to study.

Students need to secure a minimum of 50% aggregate marks in 10+2 marks. There is a need to read the rules and admission criteria of different universities.

Popular BSc Courses after Class 12th

The following are probably the most famous B.Sc specializations that students settle on after twelfth in Science.

B.Sc. Agriculture

Objective

The primary objective of the course is to instruct students in regards to the best agrarian practices. The course likewise includes research for thinking of horticulture techniques for expanding productivity, profitability and yield.

Major Subjects 

Veterinary Science

Horticulture

Home Science

Forestry

Fisheries

Agriculture (Agronomy)

B.Sc. Nursing

Objective:

This course is intended to improve basic reasoning aptitudes and prepare to rehearse proficient nursing and maternity care inconsistency with the national wellbeing clinics and centres.

Major Subjects:

Nutrition

Psychology

Biochemistry

Pharmacology

Microbiology

Child Health Nursing

Anatomy

B.Sc. Horticulture:

Objective

The course manages the study and research of plant development. Students are educated about various plants and strategies for cultivating to improve efficiency.

Major Subjects:

Crop Physiology

Soil Conservation

Pest Management

Agro Informatics

Farm Machinery

Renewable Energy

Water Management

B.Sc. Zoology

Objective:

The course manages animal science and environmental biology. The point of the course is to get ready students to work in fields like biodiversity prospecting, biological system screening, and so on.

Major Subjects

Environmental Management

Ecosystem Monitoring

Biodiversity Studies

Animal Biotechnology

Animal Bioinformatics

B.Sc. Computer Science

Objective

In this course, students find out about computer applications and programming dialects to learn programming improvement and coding. The course plans understudies for different jobs in the IT Industry.

Major Subjects

Website Designing

Software Engineering

Object-Oriented Programming

Computer Organisation

Algorithms

B.Sc. Physics

Objective

The point of the course is to teach students in all the fundamental fields of material science including, electromagnetics, optics, mechanics, and hardware.

Major Subjects

Wave and Optics

Statistical Physics

Semiconductors

Nuclear Physics

Electromagnetic Theory

Electricity Magnetism

B.Sc. Biotechnology

Objective

Being an applied science, this course is accumulated from ecological biotechnology and genetic study. The primary purpose of the course is to prepare students to improve human existence with a significant level of microbial examination.

Major Subjects

Plant Biotechnology

Molecular Biology

Industrial Biotechnology

Genetics

Cell Biology

Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

B.Sc. Chemistry

Objective

In this course, students are instructed about different particles, atoms, and substances. It additionally covers the consolidated investigation of the issue, the idea of vitality, and entropy.

Major Subjects

Inorganic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Physical Chemistry

B.Sc. Biochemistry

Objective

The course covers the study and research of chemicals and procedures identified with living life forms. This course readies the student for research in the field of Physico-chemical types.

Major Subjects

Molecular Biology

Intermediary Metabolism

Immunology

Enzymology

Clinical Biochemistry

Biomolecules

B.Sc. Mathematics

Objective

This course covers the fundamental subjects of arithmetic just as the progressed calculative ideas in the field of applied Science. Students are set up for applied examination and bosses in this field.

Major Subjects

Vector Analysis

Numerical Analysis

Integral Calculus and Trigonometry

Differential Geometry

Differential Equations

Abstract Algebra

To know more about these programs such as eligibility criteria, admission process, and other queries you can visit our official website https://sgtuniversity.ac.in/ or contact us through the mail, phone, or social media platforms. 

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Extended National Lock Down and its Ramifications on Indian Legal Professionals

I never thought I would live long enough to see the legal profession change to the extent it has”.

 Constance Baker Motley

The World is reeling under the COVID 19 pandemic in an unprecedented manner. India has reached a critical stage as the spike of COVID 19 cases being reported every passing day. In light of the above, our life is increasingly at stake. The question of the uncertainty of life pops up in our minds every now and then. A surge of despair, gloom, and pessimism is in the air. To contain the spread of the epidemic, there is an enforcement of recurrent national lockdown though the restrictions have been eased out at present. In general, our everyday life has come to a standstill as we are in enforced seclusion.

 The extended lockdown has stifled the economic growth and development of the country. The impact of a pandemic can be felt by all walks of life.  The legal profession is not an exception. As reported by the Times of India recently, the lockdown hits Rs.20,000 crore legal practice industry. Legal professionals are witnessing the consequences of the lockdown, as the Indian judiciary has been under the extended national lockdown since March 24, 2020. Access to justice has become limited in this challenging time. Given this context, the Indian legal system seems to be in jeopardy.

In the present circumstances, the physical hearing has come to a grinding halt at all types of courts across the country, barring the Supreme Court, high courts, and trial courts where virtual hearing is underway only for extremely urgent and important cases.  So, ‘work from home’ has become a vogue statement among the Indian legal professionals now.

Be that as it may, the extended national lockdown has brought to the fore the glaring class inequality among the Indian legal professionals.  The successful senior counsels- a well-paid small minority are in demand for arguing for the listed urgent or important cases at the above-mentioned courts amidst lockdown. They are in demand for arbitration to seal the pending cases too.

In contrast, the moderate lawyers closed their legal firms as they could not afford to pay their employees, and even some announced layoffs of employees because of the non-availability of cases.  In the case of ordinary lawyers, generally, most of them lead a life of hand to mouth existence as the income of these lawyers is generally based on a case-to-case basis.  In view of a prolonged shut down of the courts, the ordinary lawyers are left to fend themselves as there is no income coupled with no social security measures in place.

Amongst all, the novice or young lawyers have been hit hard because of a lack of work, and also, they miss their practical training to enhance their professional skills.  Under this scenario, they are deprived of training under a senior advocate or established lawyer at legal firms. In view of new work culture ‘work from home’, they feel alienated as they have not been directly inducted in the work. Physical presence in the legal firms is imperative to imbibe the professional skills.

Besides, the prowess of the legal profession can be learned or nurtured in a systematic manner gradually with the valuable guidance of senior lawyers. As lawyers are not born; they are produced through constant training at legal firms over a period of time. Thus, the virtual training cannot substitute the physical training of young lawyers to equip themselves. Even though the situation is grim overall, the silver lining is that the technically empowered lawyers or legal firms are doing well in this critical time.

Last but not the least, the freshly passed out law graduates are in limbo. Neither employed nor in training. Further, conversion to a virtual court or E-court is causing an inconvenience to judges and senior advocates given the poor digital infrastructure in our country. To sum up, the business is as usual for the successful senior advocates, the rest is left in the lurch. So, the scourge of class inequality has widened among the legal professionals during the extended national lockdown period. As the national lockdown has a strong bearing on the lives of ordinary lawyers, they are keenly looking forward to the functioning of the courts. Nevertheless, it is not feasible to open the courts in the coming months due to the escalation of COVID 19 cases.

Dr. Mahalingam M
Associate Professor
Faculty of Law
SGT University

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A Technique to Grow Rice with Limited Water- Direct Seeded Rice (DSR)

Rice is the staple food of the country as well as the World’s population. In India, rice is the most important and widely grown food crop and occupies a pivotal place in Indian agriculture. Rice is a high energy source (6 to 7% protein) or high-calorie food. Rice is cultivated in India by various methods like TPR (Transplanted Puddled Rice), DSR (Direct Seeded Rice) but TPR is the traditional and conventional method of rice cultivation. 15th to 30th May is the best time for nursery preparation. Puddling is necessary for the creation of an impervious layer in the soil to prevent seepage and percolation losses. A huge amount of water is required for the preparation of a puddled bed.

The transplanting of rice seedlings requires at least 25 ha cm of water for the puddling process. The crop requires about 130 ± ha cm of irrigation in addition to suitable adoption of variety and to prevent the growth of weeds. The field is kept flooded up to two weeks after the transplanting of rice seedlings. The depth of water standing should be up to 10 cm. This method of cultivation increases excessive exploitation of groundwater and competition for freshwater is raising major concerns. DSR (Direct Seeded Rice) is an alternate technique for the cultivation of rice crops. DSR is also called “tar-water DSR”. It is very popular in the rainfed area because of its low input demand.

In DSR, direct seeding of drought-tolerant varieties into dry and undisturbed soil is done in June at the time of monsoon. Only narrow strips are opened by the openers to place fertilizer and seed in the soil. The lucky seed drill is the best machine for the seeding and application of pre-emergence herbicide (Pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha) simultaneously. Farmers can also use the zero-till drill for the rice cultivation.

Direct seeded rice with the help of laser land leveler reduces the cost of production, improve soil health (population of soil micro-organisms), saves water, mature at the optimum time, increase yields, and income of the farmers. In DSR, only 8 to 10 kg seed rate per acre is required, which is less in comparison to the transplanting method.

Apart from pre-sowing irrigation, the first irrigation is applied at 20-25 DAS. By this method (DSR), farmers can save water ranging from 25% to 35%. It is estimated that if paddy is sown in April-May, ranging from 4500-5000 liters of water is required for the production of one kg of rice. If transplanting dates are advanced to mid-June, water requirements automatically reduced to 1500-2000 liters per kg of rice.

As a part of the Experiential Learning Program, students of B.Sc. (Hons.) Agriculture and M.Sc. Agriculture in Agronomy also practice this technique and demonstrate the benefits to the farmers.

Dr. Babli
Assistant Professor

Faculty of Agricultural Science
SGT University

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‘Cyber Crime and Cyber Warfare’- Cyber Forensics & Electronic Evidence

For today’s vigorously growing society, people use various devices in order to make their lives easy, faster, and more comfortable. Globalization has connected people in such a wonderful way that now a person can communicate with anybody residing in any part of the world. This continuous use of technology has impacted people’s way of communication and conduct towards each other. Internet, one of the best inventions considered has built a connection between people and companies in a faster and much economical way. But this invention with time has posed a threat that has been having a disparaging impact on civilization. Everyone whose phone or computers are connected to internet are victims of cybercrime against different organizations.

In simple words, cybercrime is a crime that involves computers or digital devices. It’s dangerous because it can either target a crime, or can be a tool of crime or it can also carry evidence of a crime. Cybercrime defines as any criminal activity that occurs over internet, for example, fraud, malware such as viruses, identity theft, cyberstalking trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property, or violating privacy, hacking, spam, steganography, and email hacking.

Because of the early and widespread adoption of computers and the internet in the US, Americans became the earliest victims or villains of cybercrime.

The question is what distinguishes cybercrime from traditional criminal activity? Of course, the use of digital computers is one difference, but that doesn’t mean that offenses like fraud, traffic in child pornography, identity stealing, or privacy violations were not happening before. All those activities existed before but what made these special was the extension of criminal behavior which was more novel.

Majorly cybercrime is an attack on information about individuals, corporations, and governments. It’s not like a physical attack but attack on sets of information attributes like personal or corporate.

An interesting thing about cybercrime is that it is nonlocal in character, means the actions can occur from vast distances also. Now this characteristic of cybercrime creates trouble when law needs to be enforced, because a crime that may have been a local crime previously may now have become a national or even an international crime. And such a situation then creates the demand of international cooperation.

For example, if a person accesses child pornography located on a computer in a country that does not ban child pornography, question or confusion arises is whether such an individual committing a crime or not? So where does the crime take place?

Cyber forensic (computer forensics) aims at investigation and analysis of such crimes by using various tools and methods. They gather information or evidences about a particular computing device which makes it reasonable enough to define against law, if required.

Criminals indulged in cyber crimes are not driven by motivated ego or expertise, rather they use it their knowledge to gain profits by deceiving or exploiting people.

In 2000, the Information and Technology Act came into existence to cater to the growing demand for legislation in cyberspace. It introduced the concept of ‘digital signature’, ‘encryption’, ‘electronic evidence’ etc. Certain changes were added in the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 in order to make it more contemporary and in tune with changing time.

Abhilasha Semwal
Deputy Manager- Research & Events
Sanrachna

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Article: Reverse Migration due to COVID-19

The COVID-19 caused havoc all over the country and disrupted the life of the people in many ways but the most visible effect is the plight of migrants. The lockdown imposed to contain the coronavirus has made the migrants return to their home state. Due to this, the second largest mass migration after the partition has witnessed by India. The closure of the economy leads to an uncertain future in front of the migrants. To secure the livelihood of the migrants, there are something concrete needs to be done otherwise this reverse migration will gradually hamper the economy also.

India has seen intra-state migration for various reasons including better employment opportunities, better wages, marriage, better education opportunities, better living standards, etc. The general trend that follows in the case of migration in India is majorly from rural to urban. As per Census 2011, 54 million people were migrants across the states, and out of those 38 million people were headed towards urban areas. The rural to urban migration has been a major part of migration flow in India. The rural to urban migration accounts for 62% of intra-state migration in India. Work/employment opportunity is the biggest reason for migration with 33% of people migrates for this reason in intra-state rural to urban migration. Out of 79 million rural to urban migrants in India, 50 million migrants which constitute 64% were marginal workers or non-workers. The majority of migrants in cities or towns were engaged in informal sectors – such as on a contractual basis in construction sites or factories – having hardly any access to benefits or social security.

In the scenario of nation-wide lockdown, the lack of social security or fear of losing the source of livelihood and shelter has compelled the migrants to return their homes. According to the World Bank report on migration in the COVID-19 crisis, more than 40 million people were affected by the lockdown and over 50,000-60,000 people returned to rural areas from urban centres in just a few days. However, the future is not certain for those who returned to their home in rural areas. The mass return of migrants to rural areas increased the supply of laborers in the rural economy. This excessive supply of labourer in agriculture increases the disguised unemployment which would further decrease agricultural productivity. The reverse migration also increases the demand for work under MGNREGA which would create pressure on the scheme. However, the government increased assistance to migrants through the MGNREGA scheme but it is not enough. The excessive dependence on agriculture and the lack of diversified sources of income overburdened the rural economy. The reverse migration also creates a shortage of labour supply for industries in urban centres such as the construction industry which employed most of the migrants. However, as the economy is reopening again, many migrants may return to urban centres to sustain their livelihood but it is vague to say that this fills the vacuum of the labour shortage.

Though reverse migration creates chaos, it also provides an opportunity to revive the rural economy. There is a need for investing and developing labor-intensive sectors such as livestock, fisheries, and food processing sector so that it can absorb the excessive labour supply and productively contribute to the economy. The rural economy often deals with poor infrastructure, we can use labour to improvise the infrastructure in both farm and non-farm activities. We need to create more and diverse opportunities in rural areas otherwise this mass reverse migration could lead to more poverty and inequality.

Abhilasha Semwal
Deputy Manager- Research & Events
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ADMISSIONS 2020