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Artificial intelligence- Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

“We want to stand at the intersection of computers and humanism” – (Steve Jobs)

Who can forget those days when one time or the other we complained about our school teachers being partial to some particular kids? We called them the teacher’s pets. Didn’t we? School years are made of these bitter sweet memories.

However, Artificial intelligence or AI is about to change all that. So, what is AI exactly? Well, Google defines it as that arena of computer science that deals with creation of intelligent machines that work like human beings. In the recent times, AI is making necessary changes in our present education scenario. Education system is being redefined by ever changing technology.

A teacher is assigned with the task of handling each and every child in a class and it is a difficult responsibility. But, assisted by AI this difficult task becomes easy. AI technology has the capacity to handle vast array of work. It therefore, becomes important for students to understand this technology and for educationist and teachers to incorporate this technology in their curriculum.

How does it work?

Machine learning tools can manage data easily. It can detect errors and frauds. AI algorithm can be used for scoring purpose and reaching full proof results. It can be used in making complex calculations, and creating scenario based simulations. It briefly put is a very feasible machine learning tool which when combined with human efforts can lead to impeccable outcome.

Future of AI in education sector

Sceptics believe that AI will take over human beings. Others believe that AI is not full proof mainly because of the fact that it doesn’t have human emotions and lacks emotional quotient.

However, AI specialists beg to differ. Artists such as painters, for example, are trying to explore and exploit AI for co creating artworks. Also, statistics are also in favour of AI. For instance, in the US while on one hand 16% of jobs were lost to machine technology; on the other hand 13.6 million were created the previous year. Also, in the education sector, AI can soon read human expressions too.

Human element in teaching is going to stay. We need to restructure our self. By incorporating AI and AI related tools in our education sector, we can change ourselves and reinvent ourselves. And as they say ’Change is only constant’; this is one change that will create a better future for all of us.

By Gurpreet Singh Tuteja
Pro-Vice Chancellor
SGT University

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Offsetting carbon for Livable globe

Climate change is one of the most arduous challenges experienced at global level. It has already increased the risk of severe heat waves in Haryana and other states of country besides other extreme weather conditions in the offing. Climate change is undeniable to inflict irreversible impacts” on globe, unless carbon emissions are reduced. There are many mechanisms for transformation of carbon dioxide into carbon storage. Enhanced terrestrial carbon stocks through plantation forestry for greenhouse gas mitigation option are identified by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Afforestation may also conserve soil organic matter by contributing to forest floor carbon. Large parts of India offer congenial conditions for fast growth of trees. The annual planting rate is 4.5 million ha, with Asia and South America accounting for 89%, still a chunk of degraded and non-forest lands needs to be put under forests for carbon storage in India. Considering a variation in the carbon sequestration potential of different plantation species may not lead to junk estimates of the carbon sequestration rates .For understanding the potential of additional carbon sequestration by afforestation for mitigation strategies of carbon dioxide, carbon storage in forest biomass, soil and wood products is necessary for offsetting carbon entering atmospheric. Soil organic matter plays a very significant role in the global carbon cycle by converting atmospheric carbon into terrestrial carbon pool. As per conservative estimate, other sources for carbon storage of manageable carbon are about 183 Mg C ha in the forest soil ecosystem.
Although reforestation and new agricultural practices could trap carbon to slow global warming, but direct removal will still be imperative for capturing of CO2. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) with the advantage of being flexible to secure and reliable; while substantially reducing emissions of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere also facilitates continuous using of fossil fuels. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) expects global CO2 emissions to dwindle by 50-80% by 2050, to prevent the most disastrous repercussions of climate change. Paris Agreement in 2015 recognizes need for CCS to meet the global climate. As the world is switching to a low-carbon economy by adopting the innovative new technologies with CO2 capture, utilization and storage, paving an important path for pursuing capturing technology and is now accepted as an appropriate emissions reduction technology to offset CO2 emissions for development of alternative energy sources. Technology of CO2 capture and storage over the last decade has considerably progressed .CO2 sequestration (CCS) – represents a set of technologies involved in capturing carbon dioxide emitted from the different sources before it accesses the atmosphere, compressing it, and injecting in subterranean to secure geological formations, and ensuring its perennial existence. Rationale behind undertaking CCS is to emphasize cost-effective solutions to tackle the global issue of climate change by reducing global CO2 emissions for a low-carbon energy future. Comparing huge amounts of CO2 emission on global scale, carbon storage by injecting into geological formations seems more justified. One conservative estimate indicate 11,000 Gt CO2 can be injected into formations like deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas fields and silicate formations (e.g., basalt) which can sink the annual CO2 emissions rate of 30 Gt of CO2/year, with objective that CO2 remains trapped underground as a fixed source with a long-term safety from induced seismicity which is an important aspect of risk assessments of geologic storage. In this realm, there is an opportunity for India to become a global technology leader for CCS with a significant opportunity to deploy CCS in industry, not only to reduce emissions, but to improve productivity and the competitiveness of our industrial centers.
Briefly, CCS mechanism involves collection of Carbon dioxide and transported to store or sequestered in geological formations. When the carbon dioxide is deposited deep below ground, having a high porosity and the temperature and pressure are enough to keep it in its liquid phase till injected until it reaches impermeable rock or cap rock that ensures no escape of carbon resulting in structural storage. With a passage of time the stored carbon dioxide become soluble into the brine solution, results water heavier and it sinks down in the formation. This process is known as dissolution storage; finally carbon dioxide in the mineral storage formation binds chemically with the surrounding rock. Blue Planet’s technology companies that specialize in carbon removal needs to devise cheaper technologies and best sites needs to be delineated by government agencies for CO2 storage viz geological formations between 1 and 4km beneath the sea‐bed in many different layers of rock; exhausted oil and gas fields can also be used as places to store this carbon dioxide, consequently, can result in more oil being recovered. Presumably, deep saline aquifers could also be used to store carbon dioxide.Ultimately global warming can be regulated by adopting carbon storage via different mechanisms.

Prof A K Bhat, FAPS
Additional Dean FASC

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Magnetic Properties at Nanoscale

Magnetic nano-particles have gain importance due to their specific properties associated with their finite size effects, size distributions, and inter-particle interactions. These resources can be applied for magnetic storage devices, ferrofluids, magnetic refrigeration systems, contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic carriers for drugs targeting or catalysis. Research in nano-structured magnetic materials has established the enormous perspective of their use in magnetic recording technology, for instance in the design of better recording heads and in development of high-density magnetic media. The magnetic recording technology uses the direction of the magnetic moments of the individual nano-particles arranged in a disk surface.
Furthermore, understanding of the magnetic properties at the nano scale has been a challenge for decades and prompted intense research activities in particular, by applications in magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and hyper-thermic cancer treatments. A special behavior of magnetic nano-particles above a certain temperature is the occurrence of superparamagnetism, which arises from the thermal energy overcoming the magnetic anisotropy energy barriers of single-domain particles. Ultra-fine superparamagnetic particles can be prepared by several methods, such as chemical reduction, colloidal routes, vapor deposition, sputtering, melt-spinning, electrode-position, mechanical alloying. And for the confirmation of superparamagnetic state, magnetization can be measured with different temperature varies from 5k to 300k with presence and absence of magnetic field. A superparamagnetic state characterized by blocking temperature TB is defined as the temperature at which the hysteresis loop response is lost for a particular time frame of experiment [Fig.1]. Moreover, below TB, superparamagnetic materials lose its preferred direction of magnetization, and above TB, superparamagnetic materials can fluctuate randomly by thermal fluctuation. The variation in magnetic properties below blocking temperature is attributed to the existence of magnetic anisotropy barriers.
Recently using superparamagnetic materials enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technology has been developed to capture high-resolution images of cells and tissues. Superparamagnetic materials have also got applications in magnetic separation, where superparamagnetic particles are magnetized in the presence of applied magnetic field and during this process particles get agglomerated and after removal of the magnetic field get separated. Most recently superparamagnetic materials have found application in immunoassay due to its rapidly switching capability (magnetization and demagnetization) with respect to the external magnetic field. Therefore, it is intuitive that superparamagnetic materials have got incredible applications in the field of nano-science and bio-science. And in the future department of physics, faculty of science will try to synthesize and characterize superparamagnetic materials for application in biomedical sciences.

Dr. Mukesh Kumar
Assistant Professor
Department of Physics, Faculty of science
SGT University, Gurugram, Delhi-NCR

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The Environment in Ancient Literature

Our ancient Vedic literature and Upanishads also describes ecological and environmental values. The Atharva Veda solemnly recognizes and enduring allegiance of humankind to mother Earth.
Isho Upanishad has emphasized on ecological and environmental values in a stanza, which states: “The whole universe together with its creatures belong to the Lord (Nature)…….Let no one species encroach over the rights and privileges of other species.  One can enjoy nature by giving up greed”.
Living in harmony with nature has always been emphasized with the philosophy to take from nature only what we actually need and not more. In our ancient literature Khsiti (Soil), Jal (Water), Pawan (Energy), Gagan (Space) and Samira (air) are recognized as the basic resources of the earth. Our classical literature emphasized the message that resources should not be used wastefully but should be conserved. Kautilya in his famous treatise Arthshashtra describes the world’s first forest conservation and wildlife management programme.
Contemporary Chandra Gupta Maurya maintained the forest for different purposes like elephant domestication, hunting, and forests as reserves. History tells that Indian people have been utilizers of nature and not the exploiters. Indian has been under the influence of humans and agriculture for about 10,000 years even then the resource depletion has not been proportional to our very long history. This has been mainly due to the compassion for the living and non-living and the principle of Ahinsa purmo dharma that is ingrained in our culture. There is a need to incorporate these principles in regulating resource use.
A modern man must re-establish an unbroken link with its nature and life. He must again learn to invoke the energy of growing things and to recognize, as did the ancients in India centuries ago, that one can take form the earth and the atmosphere only so much as on puts back into them. The hymn from Atharva veda which runs as follows:

“What of thee I dig out, let that quickly grow ever,
Let me not hit thy vitals or thy heart”.

This shows India’s age-old concern over ecological values.

One impulse of vernal woods
Can teach you more of man
Then all the sages can
– William worth warth

Dr. Abhishek Swami
Associate Professor
Department of Environmental Science
SGT University, Gurugram

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Hypothyroidism- Need & Importance of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation

We know Hypothyroidism is a complex disease which is characterized by signs and symptoms that may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life and performance in the course of physical activity. These patients have lower physical activity levels, poor exercise tolerance which causes them to fatigue easily. Consequently, it leads to the deterioration of quality of life. These problems result from the insubstantial pulmonary reserve, limited cardiac reserve, reduced muscle strength or the increased tendency of muscle fatigue.
The exercise intolerance in hypothyroidism is multifactorial and is dependent on the functional limitations of the various system organs. Patients with hypothyroidism have been found to have decreased Cardio-respiratory fitness (VO2 max). Thyroid hormones maintain the functions of cardiovascular, respiratory systems and muscles during relaxation and during exercise. Decreased levels of thyroid hormones cause weakness in muscles of inspiration and expiration, alveolar hypoventilation and decreased hypoxic ventilator drive. It has been found that patients with hypothyroidism have decreased pulmonary functions which in turn lead to decrease oxygenation. Diminished pulmonary functions and capacities lead to reduced Cardio-respiratory fitness among patients with hypothyroidism. There occurs a reduction in contractile force of myocardium by changes in the structure of ATPase enzyme further affecting the pumping function of the heart and cardiac output which is a dominant factor in evaluating the level of Cardio-respiratory fitness.
There are increased incident of atherosclerotic lesions and cardiovascular events in subjects with hypothyroidism due to the increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and decrease in HDL levels. Total cholesterol and LDL levels are found to be raised due to decreased LDL receptors activity resulting in the reduced breakdown of LDL and IDL. Moreover reduction in Lipoprotein lipase activity is also found in clinical hypothyroidism which results in reduced clearance of triglycerides rich lipoproteins.
It is observed that there are variations in HR & BP response during exercise & recovery. The slow recovery in heart rate and decreased chronotropic response in subclinical hypothyroidism suggests that alteration in cardiac contractility, myocardial oxygen consumption, cardiac output, BP and systemic vascular resistance, negative association of HR recovery and Chronotropic response with TSH may suggest the abnormal TSH concentration may be noval cardiac risk factors.
Regular aerobic training has been found to improve the flow-mediated endothelium-dependent arterial dilation and change the lipid profile and inflammation in subclinical hypothyroidism. 12-week medium impact exercises have been found to be effective to increase cardio-respiratory fitness and health-related quality of life in subclinical hypothyroidism.
Researchers suggest that breathing training has a positive impact on the improvement of respiratory muscle functions & cardiac functions.

Dr. Sonia Pawaria
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physiotherapy

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LifeStyle Disorders and role of Physiotherapy

Lifestyle can be defined as the way to live one’s life. The world is witnessing a growing prevalence of various health-related issues owing to changing lifestyle irrespective of age or gender. A lifestyle of a person is a combination of his or her physical and mental functioning and is the result of various factors like habits, behavior, physical activity, dietary patterns, and preferences. By saying lifestyle disorders means health issues resulting from a poor lifestyle which is a consequence of leading a sedentary life, lack of sufficient physical activity in our day to today work, less inclination towards maintaining the fitness of the body and a diet that is lacking in nutritious value and is full of calories.
Modernization, mechanization, use of gadgets have certainly made our life easy but it has come at the cost of health. Health issues that can be categorized under lifestyle disorders are both physical as well as mental. Diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, various types of cancers, obesity, breathing difficulties, depression, and anxieties are some of the consequences of leading a sedentary lifestyle.
Occupational lifestyle disorder can be defined as health problems like back pain, neck pain, stress headaches, and compression neuropathies, etc that result because of static and poor posture that we maintain at our workplace as well as the poor work environment. Altered biological clock and sustained mental pressure at the workplace also result in health issues like insomnia, indigestion, depression, anxiety and various other mental health issues.
Physiotherapists are the experts that aim to restore movement, function, and activities of daily living. As health experts, they not only play a crucial role in the management of lifestyle disorders but can also prevent most of them. Position statement by World Confederation of Physical Therapy has described Physiotherapy intervention as aimed at promotion and maintenance of health and fitness for all ages and population. They can not only identify risk factors responsible for noncommunicable disorders through proper evaluation and assessment but can also refer to other practitioners if needed. As health care professionals they also educate and guide about the importance of physical activity, exercises, volume and type of exercises and about diet modification. This can be done through an individually tailored exercise regimen, addressing behavioral changes which include cessation of smoking, optimal nutrition, maintaining a healthy weight, the importance of regular physical activity and exercise, optimal sleep and strategies to avoid and tackle stress.
Childhood Obesity is one of the major health-related issue grappling the society which results from poor lifestyle. It can be controlled through prevention program through advocacy in schools and communities and by prescribing the right type and amount of physical activity and fitness program. American College of Sports Medicine recommends 20-30 minutes of moderate intensity exercises on most of the days of the week to maintain fitness and reduce the risk of developing noncommunicable disorder like diabetes and heart disease. Physiotherapists also recommend aerobic exercises for reducing the risk of developing heart diseases.
To conclude lifestyle disorders can cause significant morbidity and mortality but they are very much preventable. Physiotherapists as health care experts can educate, advise about the prevention of lifestyle disorders. They can also prescribe different types of exercises, evaluate health goals and may help to achieve those goals.

Dr. Sheetal Kalra
Professor
Faculty of Physiotherapy
SGT University, Gurugram

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A career in Law, without being a Lawyer

Pursuing a career in law is in great demand today. The legal profession is not only intellectually satisfying and financially rewarding it is also very adventurous and exciting. The role of lawyers has evolved and expanded over the years.
With the advent of globalization and liberalization, rapid changes in the social, economic, political and cultural aspects of the society have created a great demand for legal professionals. This increase in demand is not only for lawyers who join the bar but for lawyers who would help to serve a variety of core and non-core legal functions. Thus today lawyers are required in the corporate sector as in house counsels, who advise on legal matters relating to the businesses. These in-house counsels play an important role in drafting, vetting, and negotiating contracts.
Further, in-house counsels are also required in multi-national companies, private companies, private banks, government agencies, public sector undertakings, public and nationalized banks, etc. Besides many lawyers can join law firms which are engaged in the practice of law. In such firms, there are several lawyers who work together as one entity. They advise clients about their rights and the legal recourse that they can take if required.
In addition to the above lawyers are required to work for NGOs on various socio-legal issues that impact the vulnerable sections of the society. Many law graduates can have a very meaningful career in this field. Joining the judicial services as judges and the civil services as administrative officers are other challenging professions available to the law graduates.
Academia is one area which is expanding considerably in the present times. After obtaining a law degree, a law student may also pursue higher studies and join legal educational institutions. Working with the media is a very challenging proposition today. This field opens wide opportunities for young lawyers to work as legal correspondents.
In a nutshell, as the society develops and grows more and more legal professionals will be required in specialized fields, such as environmental law, intellectual property law, constitutional law, family law, property law, arbitration law, mediation law, etc.

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Need a Break from the Breaks

Television watching in India becomes a daily torture for the common viewers. Frequent and long advertisement breaks frequently interrupt the viewing and TV audiences loose all the enjoyment. The viewers pay subscription fee for watching news & entertainment programs but instead they are being compelled to watch a lot of ads.
Obviously, the viewers getting irritated frustrated and feel helpless. In private conversations, they express their anger but don’t know how to get rid of the problem. They definitely expect that somebody should take up their cause and must do something about it. But telecommunication regulatory authority of India who tried once, failed miserably.
We all know that most of the TV channels are bombarding ads day & night but data also speaks loud and clear about this disgusting trend. According to the centre for Media Studies 35% to 48% air time is being consumed by the ads only.
In last two years situation has worsen further. During the festival seasons share of the content in total air time goes down to 15-20 percent. Each episode of any popular TV serials contains only 15-18 minute stuff and rest is filled by the ads. The two hour movies take 3-4 hours to complete.
Most of the established news channel’s half an hour bulletins or programs have around 15-18 minutes content. Apart from that several ads in the form of graphics on the screen disturb the viewing continuously. If we add telemarketing shows and paid programs like Baba’s discourses then we don’t know what will be the actual ratio. Obviously it is very unfair to the audience who is paying from the nose.
On the other hand, there is a broadcaster community who simply doesn’t care about it. As a result the breaks are flooded with the ads. Whether it is a news channel or general entertainment channel, they really don’t bother about the audience and continue to put as much ads as possible. If someone raises the question they will give reasons like financial problems and slow down in the Industry.
If any government body tries to regularize this, they immediately raise the red flag and start sloganeering of self regulation. They also raise the issue of so called interference from the government or the current international practices to shield their interests.
This is the background we should keep in our mind when we discuss the resistance from the broadcasters they have shown against the regulation enforced by the TRI in regard to the fixing of duration of advertisements for the TV channels. Few years back, when TRI first time tried to enforce it, the broadcasters made a lot of hue and cry. Consequently, TRI had to stop the implementation and restart the consultation process.
It is not like that one fine morning TRI got up and decided to issue an order in this respect and broadcasters became shocked to see it. On the contrary, the TRI was asking for adherence to a regulation which is already there. The Cable Television Networks rules 1994 have this provision from the very beginning, but broadcasters are ignoring it up till now. They even not awakened when the TRI started consultation.
We should also see the international norms. In most of the western countries including US, same duration for the ads is already fixed and all the channels are following it strictly. After all, unlike India they don’t have freedom to break the rules easily and take their audience for granted. Though, everything is not perfect there also but since consumer rights groups are very strong there and regulations are also in place to take care of audience interest there are some protections for TV audience as well.
In brief, we can say that all the stake holders of the TV industry must bear in their mind that not industry but audience is supreme and its interest must be protected in any condition.

(Dr. Mukesh is working in SGT University as Dean and Professor, Faculty of Mass Communication & Media Technology)

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