Engineering

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“PERMANENT PASSENGERS” – Can Self-Driving Cars Realize the Concept?

Imagine you need to reach somewhere, you get into your car and either type in or speak up the location’s detail and your car drives you to it, all on its own while you rest, read, sleep; watch a movie in the backseat, etc. Self-Driving Vehicle (cars, buses, trucks, etc. which operates autonomously without human intervention while following each and every traffic rule safely and efficiently) is clearly an elusive concept till today. In spite of so many claims by the world’s leading Giants in the automotive field, we are yet to experience driverless transportation at the public level around us. Guardian predicted in 2015 that we will be “Permanent Backseat Drivers” by 2020. Many declarations were made, indicating the introduction of millions of driverless cars by 2020. These predictions were backed by Automotive Giants like General Motors, Tesla, Honda, Toyota, Google’s Waymo, etc. but we still don’t see anything revolutionary improvement happening in this direction….or Do we? This article will discuss briefly Self driving Cars: Leading developers, concept, technology, reality, and future.

Shoshana Zuboff, an American author, scholar and former Professor at Harvard Business School, claimed almost three decades ago that:

“Everything that can be automated will be automated”

It is only now that we came to see how precisely she predicted future technology. With everything being automated how can the automobile sector have fallen behind? With the introduction of the concept: Autonomous navigation- as early as in 1920, some practical projects were presented in the 1980s that were judged to be very promising. Since then, almost every automotive Megacorp has been working with utmost dedication to realize the concept of “Self-Driving Vehicles”. Google’s WAYMO division and General Motors’ CRUISE division are two names that are much more serious than others like Tesla, Fiat Chrysler, Honda, Uber, Volvo, Ford, Nuro, Zoox, Argo, Jaguar, etc. , in the field of Autonomous public vehicles. According to an article by Kelsey Piper titled “It’s 2020. Where are our self-driving cars?”, WAYMO drove around 1.2 million miles in 2018 alone with a total distance traveled is more than 20 million miles of the driverless journey. CRUISE also competes closely with around half a million miles driven per year and improving. Though we have not yet achieved a concrete breakthrough in this field Engineering teams are putting in extraordinary efforts to fulfill their vision of Autonomous Navigation.

Read Also: Mechanical Engineering: Why and How?

Now let us delve more into the technology and concept of driverless navigation. Essentially, general automobile designs incorporate sensors and soft wares based on Artificial Intelligence and computer numerical control to navigate, control, and drive the vehicle safely on roads. These vehicles are capable of generating a personal map of their surroundings by using sensors or an array of sensors based on RADAR technology, LASER beam technology, high powered cameras, SONARS, etc. The inputs obtained through these sensors are then fed to the controlling software that plots the actual path for the vehicle and provides commands to different actuators. Actuators are the Electro-Mechanical elements that control different vehicle operations like breaking, accelerating, steering, etc. Algorithms or Rule base dealing with Target acquisition, obstacle avoidance, predictive modeling, and ‘Smart’ object discrimination helps the vehicle to navigate safely through the traffic. Another feature of ‘Connected’ vehicles is quite famous nowadays in this era of ‘Internet of Things’ in which one vehicle is able to communicate with other vehicles/s. Mechatronics plays an important role there. B. Tech in Mechanical engineering with specialization in Mechatronics and Machine learning is required for the clarification of the concept of self-driving cars.

At this juncture, we need to know the levels of Autonomy present and our achieved level. Engineering Researchers and data researches have given 6 levels on which Autonomy is described. Level ‘0’ indicates manual driving and no automation at all. Level ‘1’ highlights a single function being controlled at a time like automatic breaking or Cruise control along with the presence of a human for safe driving. Level ‘2’ also needs a human for most of the driving but with at least 2 functions being controlled at a time like acceleration and steering. Level ‘3’ autonomous vehicles drive by themselves for a certain period but it’s required for a human to take over under critical situations. Level ‘4’ vehicles will drive completely on their own in certain pre-defined driving scenarios. At last, level ‘5’ indicates the apex of Autonomy in which the vehicle is completely capable of driving under every possible situation. As of now, we are freely using level ‘3’ vehicles with great success, level ‘4’ vehicles are under testing phase and engineers are facing legal and safety issues and it is being foretold that they will be released for public use soon. Level ‘5’ vehicles are still a concept only and a lot more years are required for mechanical and computer science engineers to roll on the roads.

There are many levels at which this technology will impact our society. Innovation and creativity are required for the wellbeing and upliftment of society. It all comes through practice and SGT University organizes SYNERGY Techfest every year to promote technical skills and creativity through multidisciplinary projects. Safety, help to elderly or differently-abled people, efficient use of fuel and less wear and tear of automotive parts, cheaper options for people who don’t own cars, etc. are some pros of Self-Driven cars. But there are always risks involved with any new technology that embarks. In this case, the main concerns are replacing human drivers (unemployment), safety from hackers, an increase in consumption of fuels due to an increase in miles driven, legal and federal laws formulation to govern the working of Autonomous vehicles, etc. Nowadays AIML (Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning) is the required track with all the branches of engineering. SGT University offers B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering with mechatronics and machine learning. After a critical analysis of the merits and demerits, we can come to a general solution that any new technology comes with its dangers but we always work out ways to refine it and mold it to our benefit. At last, it will be unjust not to mention that Artificial Intelligence technology is the most important factor on which the Self-Driven cars rely upon. With the recent advancements in AI, we are getting closer and closer to our goal of fully automating everything around us (Whatever benefits us). Due to the fact that driving on our roads with high reliability is still a tedious and complex task for present AI tools, many of us have developed skeptical thinking towards the success or applicability of this technology. But recent advancements in AI technology have promised a slow but steady pace of improvement in the Autonomous navigation arena. Therefore in spite of many skeptics doubting the success of this technology, one thing is clear that technology will always find a way to improve, impact, and change our way of living.

Monika Deshwal
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
SGT University

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“Manufacturing Need” and “Artificial Intelligence” Means

To manufacture” was the need of mankind in times as early as Stone Age, is still a need of today and it will be pretty safe to say that the need will still be persistent in the far future and might even be more prominent than ever. In fact, owning the frontier of Manufacturing technology and being a stalwart in the production business has become very crucial for a country’s overall development. This can be well understood by a quote from a very famous philosopher Karl Marx who said:

“The country that is more developed industrially only shows, to the less developed, the image of its own future”

The inception of manufacturing started as early as the first men walked the face of the earth. Over a period of time, we had refined our ways of manufacturing, starting from the traditional production process (Conversion of raw material to finished product) to an integrated concept of Business level operation. Now Business implies competition and in this case, a very substantial one. As we talk more and more about newer, faster, more efficient, and flexible production systems, we generally talk about the essential tools necessary for this evolution. From the early Industrial Revolution, the Manufacturing industry experienced revolutionary changes which comprised of the introduction of Steam power, Electrical power, Numerical controlled machines, use of automated production lines, advanced Non-Traditional machining, and many more. But the most critical development in my opinion came along with the introduction of computers and programmable control systems. Fixed automation was upgraded to programmable automation and controlling the production process was easy unlike anything seen before. This continued and introduction of Information & communication technology strengthened the manufacturing industry to a greater extent. Now as evolution is a continuous process, along came artificial Intelligence technology to transform the current automated Manufacturing to Smart Manufacturing. A quote from an eminent scholar & Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University, Andrew Ng illustrates this fact:

Electricity transformed every business. Now deep learning and AI has advanced to the point it, too, has the potential to transform every industry. AI will perform manufacturing, quality control, shorten design time, and reduce materials waste, improve production reuse, perform predictive maintenance, and more.”

Artificial intelligence can simply be defined as providing a brain to our machines such that they become intelligent like human beings. This is the simplest definition that I could come up with but in reality, AI is not at all a simple technology. AI is used on three levels in the industry namely: Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), Artificial General Intelligence (AGI )& Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI ). ANI encompasses machines that perform single tasks intelligently like a welding robot that only performs welding operation. AGI is an advanced version of ANI in which the machine learns and develops its own memory database to perform tasks and take decisions on its own. Research is still going on to develop a fully functional Manufacturing system of this type. A close example of this could be the two-armed robot that assembles components without any program, developed by a team of researchers at Siemens Corporate Technology division in Munich, Germany. The third level of AI namely ASI is merely a concept as of now. A machine with intelligence that surpasses that of humans is still a myth but not impossibility.

Newer technologies like IoT (Internet of things) fueled by AI tools like Machine learning, pattern recognition software are going to be the key players to set up the so-called future smart factories. The Manufacturer’s Annual Manufacturing Report 2018 depicted that a major percentage (>90%)of senior manufacturing executives believe that “Smart Factory” digital technologies, including AI, will enable them to increase their productivity and empower staff to work smarter.

“Smart factories have the potential to generate as much as $3.7 trillion in value per year in 2025,” (McKinseyGlobal Report)

Knowing that an evolving Mechanical and Manufacturing sector will bring in lots of opportunities for budding Engineering students of today, we at SGT University focus on the all-round development of our students by providing them the required equipment and guidance. B. Tech Mechanical Engineering students here are practicing with actual robotic arms, simulation setup, CNC machines, etc. and are undertaking basic and advanced courses like Machine learning, Cloud computing, etc. to keep themselves at par with the growing and evolving industry.

Mr. Asad Habeeb
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering

 

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Role of Artificial Intelligence in Food Industry Post-COVID-19

Whether we like it or not COVID-19 has established in our lives. While the world is struggling with the changed order, few countries have crossed the bridge and are slowly getting back to business. India is eagerly waiting for the dust to set and life to begin all over again. How soon we are able to do so is a million-dollar question at this moment. However, what all are sure of – is the need to urgently find a new way, evolve strategies, and be ready for the post COVID scenario.

Back to business

The food industry is slowly but steadily finding its lost ground. In the past few weeks, home delivery services have been resume, and restaurants are seeing a gradual spike in numbers. With no-contact deliveries and online payments, consumers are fast gaining confidence in ordering food from restaurants online. While consumers are also eagerly waiting to get back to eating out, the industry itself is trying to find ways to make the consumer experience more safe, hygienic, and assuring. Post-COVID, a lot is sure to change in the way people plan their eating outs. Restaurants, on the other hand, have to re-invent themselves in the way they cook, serve, and meet the high standards of hygiene. And the only answer is – shift towards automation and Artificial Intelligence for the benefits of all. The minimal use of human hand assures the food is safe, hygienic, and perfect to taste as every aspect is pre-programmed.

Also ReadArtificial intelligence – Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

Automation, the way forward

In this fast-changing scenario, the food industry should brace itself to more stringent rules for non-home cooked food preparations. One can easily foresee the introduction of strict guidelines by the government taking the benchmark of food safety and hygiene a notch higher. In many parts of the world traditional cooking equipment such as tandoor and gas stoves, which are both risky as well as unfavorable for the environment, have been banned in commercial spaces. While new rules might soon be laid down to beat the virus at all levels, consumers themselves will be more discerning in times to come. They will pick restaurants that follow high standards of hygiene and where social distancing is practiced in the best possible way. A recent study done by an Indian restaurant-tech-solution platform cited more and more people are moving towards digital ordering and payment, where they do not have to touch anything other than sanitized cutlery during their restaurant visits.

Read Also, COVID 19: How to Prevent Corona Virus Through Hand Cleansing

The professional kitchens are in for mega changes world over. Restaurants will have to upgrade themselves with new-age technology which depends a lot on Artificial Intelligence and complete automation. Smart combi-ovens are the ‘new normal’. These smart appliances can be programmed in such a way that they can cook the best meals with minimal intervention. They can make any chef’s craftsmanship come true with ease. From baking, steaming to giving the final finish with the right color crust, aroma, and texture; they can do it all. What’s more, most of the intelligent equipment comes with automatic self-cleaning function, and hence nothing is left to chance when it comes to matters of cleanliness and hygiene. Even the HACCP data can be retrieved from the units automatically which can become a mandatory requirement in the future for commercial kitchens to maintain.

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Machine Learning – A New Way of Life

Humans are known to reduce their workload by utilizing their intelligence to make the task easier and more comprehensible. Be it inventing the art of designing the wheel or discovering scientific advancements that have helped us to be ahead of all the species. Humans can teach living beings with its dominance however humans have also crafted the skill to train non-living items such as computer models so as to improvise their jobs. The idea of Machine Learning is correlated to the idea of Artificial Intelligence and its astonishing to understand that all these concepts were prevalent back in the 18th century. The very first machine which was trained to do jobs voluntarily was an automated chess-playing machine. The device had some predefined moves fixed using several mechanical levers. Although the application was very plain however it was revolutionary at that time to design a chess machine where one would compete with a machine. Tracing through the timeline, we find another application of AI where Alan Tuning helped in ending World War II just by inventing the machine that could decode a highly complicated code by the Germans in a couple of minutes.

The field of Artificial Intelligence has always been very interesting and full of possibilities. Before diving deeper let us understand why we need Machine learning? The programming approach that we have been using for problem-solving is a traditional approach. Wherein we provide a problem, provide a code as if how to solve a problem and come to a solution. However, in this approach, most of the logical thinking is done by the human brain, even if the logic behind the problem is redundant. In order to cope up with this situation we devised a process whereby using the problem statement and the previous output of similar logic, the machine not only processes the code but also remembers the key features of the problem so as to solve it. This approach made a revolutionary change in all peripherals of technology.

For understanding how a machine learning model works, let’stake an example of a student who is joining his very first day in school. The teacher teaches by showing a red apple that it’s an apple. Similarly, by showing the image of every fruit and describing the features of every fruit, the teacher explains it all. Now when the student is asked to detect the name of a fruit that is orange in color and tastes sweet with multiple seeds in it, he can very easily say it’s orange. This is exactly how machine learning works. It is important to note that the dataset or in the above example the instances that the teacher gave the student just to explain the fruits, plays a very important role. If any data in the dataset is missing or is incorrect then it directly affects the accuracy.

Nowadays Machine Learning is the new hype. Almost every possible field be it agriculture, cybersecurity, health sector, transport sector, finds some application or the other of ML. Now with machines taking over most of the sectors, threats for unemployment are a concern. However, we need to understand that in the application phase, ML will generate more jobs for the mass. Just like with the invention of cellular communication, there was a wave of employment. In a nutshell, Machine Learning is a great invention of humankind which would play as a major catalyst in our motto for futuristic advancement.

Manpreet Singh Bajwa
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
SGT University

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Artificial Intelligence – Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

“We want to stand at the intersection of computers and humanism” –(Steve Jobs)

Who can forget those days when one time or the other we complained about our school teachers being partial to some particular kids? We called them the teacher’s pets. Didn’t we? School years are made of these bittersweet memories.

However, Artificial intelligence or AI is about to change all that. So, what is AI exactly? Well, Google defines it as the arena of computer science that deals with the creation of intelligent machines that work like human beings.  In recent times, AI is making necessary changes in our present education scenario. The education system is being redefined by ever-changing technology.

A teacher is assigned with the task of handling each and every child in a class and it is a difficult responsibility. But, assisted by AI this difficult task becomes easy. AI technology has the capacity to handle a vast array of work. It, therefore, becomes important for students to understand this technology and for educationists and teachers to incorporate this technology into their curriculum. Some of the best colleges for engineering offer an AI course which makes the students future-ready.

How does it work?

Machine learning tools can manage data easily. It can detect errors and frauds. AI algorithms can be used for scoring purposes and reaching full-proof results. It can be used in making complex calculations and creating scenario-based simulations.  It briefly put is a very feasible machine learning tool which when combined with human efforts can lead to an impeccable outcome.

Future of AI in the education sector

Skeptics believe that AI will take over human beings. Others believe that AI is not full proof mainly because of the fact that it doesn’t have human emotions and lacks emotional quotient.

However, AI specialists beg to differ. Artists such as painters, for example, are trying to explore and exploit AI for co-creating artworks. Also, statistics are also in favor of AI. For instance, in the US while on one hand 16% of jobs were lost to machine technology; on the other hand, 13.6 million were created the previous year. Also, in the education sector, AI can soon read human expressions too.

The human element in teaching is going to stay. We need to restructure our self. By incorporating AI and AI-related tools in our education sector, we can change ourselves and reinvent ourselves. And as they say ’Change is only constant’; this is one change that will create a better future for all of us.

If considering keeping pace with the future, one can pursue a course in AI from SGT University, one of the top universities for engineering in India.

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Mechanical Engineering: Why and How?

Mechanical Engineering can be defined as one of the oldest and broadest engineering branches and hence, one of the most preferred ones by the engineering aspirants.

The branch applies the principles of engineering, physics, and material science for the look, analysis, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. This branch of engineering involves the style, production, and operation of machinery. The best college of engineering allows the students to learn all the intricacies of engineering.

Mechanical Engineering includes the style, manufacture, installation, and operation of engines, machines, robotics, heating & cooling systems, and manufacturing processes. In this profession, students will get to design and develop machines right from bicycles to supersonic fighter jets and toasters which can be extremely challenging and fulfilling, requiring analytical skills together with an ability to work in a team. Moreover, to pursue this course, the first and foremost requirement is that you should love machines and be comfortable working with the tools. Mechanical engineering may be a skilled program that helps students to grasp the operating mechanisms of serious tools and machineries. The curriculum covers technical areas like distribution of electricity through generators, transformers, transmission lines, lighting and wiring in buildings.

A course in mechanical engineering makes a student capable of designing an electric motor, automobiles, aircraft and other heavy vehicles. Mechanical engineering demands knowledge about the software used in technical work like computer-aided design and mathematical modeling.

What do you need to be a Mechanical Engineering Student?

In order to be a mechanical engineer, an aspirant needs to have an understanding of the core concepts of mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. By having knowledge of these, a mechanical engineer utilizes these core concepts along with tools like computer-aided design, and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment, and machinery heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others.

Eligibility

  • For UG: 10+2 pass with at least 45% Marks with Physics and Maths as compulsory subjects along with any one out of Chemistry/Biotechnology/Computer Science/Biology
  • For PG: B. Tech. with at least 50%

What are the scopes of Mechanical Engineering?

Mechanical Engineering covers aspects like style and testing among others. The job demands supervising and coming up with life comes associated with thermal power plants, nuclear stations, generation of electricity, etc. There are employment opportunities for credential holders World Health Organization has sensible data of functioning on fields like testing of machinery etc.

The rising fields during this space embrace renewable energy, automobiles, quality control, Industrial Automation, Mechanobiology. These are aiming to increase force within the work profile of engineering science and would supply employment opportunities.

Graduates will add the automotive, aerospace, chemical, computer, communication, paper, power generation, and almost all manufacturing industries. Mechanical engineers conjointly add maintenance and repair profiles altogether industries.

Also, they will select the teaching profession in universities and faculties.

After finishing a B.Tech/BE you can opt for M.Tech/MS in various specializations such as Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Mechanical Handling, and Automation, Mechanical Systems Design & Thermal Energy and Environmental Engineering.

Area of work of a Mechanical Engineer

A Mechanical Engineer works across various fields of the Manufacturing sector. The job profiles of the Mechanical Engineers range in the Research & Development, Production, Design, Analysis, and Testing, Installation and Maintenance. To answer the question, what is the area of work of a Mechanical Engineer, the responsibilities include designing – either manually or with the help of CAD and implementing equipment

modification so as to boost the assembly quality, project management and ensure the smooth running of operations of the plant or the manufacturing unit.

The mechanical engineers also are liable for putting in and maintaining varied machines and tools that had been researched and developed by them. In short, the engineers have to ensure the overall smooth running of the process in the industry.

SGT College of Engineering is one of the best engineering colleges in Gurgaon and in the Delhi NCR region. It is well known for its quality education and aims at creating engineers who serve society and mankind.

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