Law

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Extended National Lock Down and its Ramifications on Indian Legal Professionals

I never thought I would live long enough to see the legal profession change to the extent it has”.

 Constance Baker Motley

The World is reeling under the COVID 19 pandemic in an unprecedented manner. India has reached a critical stage as the spike of COVID 19 cases being reported every passing day. In light of the above, our life is increasingly at stake. The question of the uncertainty of life pops up in our minds every now and then. A surge of despair, gloom, and pessimism is in the air. To contain the spread of the epidemic, there is an enforcement of recurrent national lockdown though the restrictions have been eased out at present. In general, our everyday life has come to a standstill as we are in enforced seclusion.

 The extended lockdown has stifled the economic growth and development of the country. The impact of a pandemic can be felt by all walks of life.  The legal profession is not an exception. As reported by the Times of India recently, the lockdown hits Rs.20,000 crore legal practice industry. Legal professionals are witnessing the consequences of the lockdown, as the Indian judiciary has been under the extended national lockdown since March 24, 2020. Access to justice has become limited in this challenging time. Given this context, the Indian legal system seems to be in jeopardy.

In the present circumstances, the physical hearing has come to a grinding halt at all types of courts across the country, barring the Supreme Court, high courts, and trial courts where virtual hearing is underway only for extremely urgent and important cases.  So, ‘work from home’ has become a vogue statement among the Indian legal professionals now.

Be that as it may, the extended national lockdown has brought to the fore the glaring class inequality among the Indian legal professionals.  The successful senior counsels- a well-paid small minority are in demand for arguing for the listed urgent or important cases at the above-mentioned courts amidst lockdown. They are in demand for arbitration to seal the pending cases too.

In contrast, the moderate lawyers closed their legal firms as they could not afford to pay their employees, and even some announced layoffs of employees because of the non-availability of cases.  In the case of ordinary lawyers, generally, most of them lead a life of hand to mouth existence as the income of these lawyers is generally based on a case-to-case basis.  In view of a prolonged shut down of the courts, the ordinary lawyers are left to fend themselves as there is no income coupled with no social security measures in place.

Amongst all, the novice or young lawyers have been hit hard because of a lack of work, and also, they miss their practical training to enhance their professional skills.  Under this scenario, they are deprived of training under a senior advocate or established lawyer at legal firms. In view of new work culture ‘work from home’, they feel alienated as they have not been directly inducted in the work. Physical presence in the legal firms is imperative to imbibe the professional skills.

Besides, the prowess of the legal profession can be learned or nurtured in a systematic manner gradually with the valuable guidance of senior lawyers. As lawyers are not born; they are produced through constant training at legal firms over a period of time. Thus, the virtual training cannot substitute the physical training of young lawyers to equip themselves. Even though the situation is grim overall, the silver lining is that the technically empowered lawyers or legal firms are doing well in this critical time.

Last but not the least, the freshly passed out law graduates are in limbo. Neither employed nor in training. Further, conversion to a virtual court or E-court is causing an inconvenience to judges and senior advocates given the poor digital infrastructure in our country. To sum up, the business is as usual for the successful senior advocates, the rest is left in the lurch. So, the scourge of class inequality has widened among the legal professionals during the extended national lockdown period. As the national lockdown has a strong bearing on the lives of ordinary lawyers, they are keenly looking forward to the functioning of the courts. Nevertheless, it is not feasible to open the courts in the coming months due to the escalation of COVID 19 cases.

Dr. Mahalingam M
Associate Professor
Faculty of Law
SGT University

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Imparting Legal Education by Conventional Vs. Virtual Classroom Method

The current pandemic brought numerous jurisdictions observed lockdown (partial or complete), has advanced people to switch to technology. This has culminated in the need for digitalization and the promotion of virtual means. The education sector is not aloof to this trend. Perhaps, this sector has been forthcoming in using virtual means to teach, educate people, more so connected to masses.

The virtual classroom may be understood with Plato’s proverb ‘Necessity is the mother of invention’. The imperative need to adopt and function classrooms virtually has been felt lately. It can be opined that unprecedented pandemic has triggered the necessity to work with virtual or digital technology.

In so far as continuing with virtual classroom education in times of this unprecedented pandemic, it raises profound issues of digital illiteracy, limited resources, privacy, or IPR issues. Nonetheless, besides these obstacles, one essential aspect of the virtual learning-education system is the absence of non-verbal communication. Conventional classroom education has a major contribution from nonverbal communication i.e. non-linguistic means. It includes kinesthetic, paralanguage, haptics, olfactory, chronemics forms of expression that not supplement verbal communication but enrich the whole learning process.

A vital question proliferates, as a consequence of the unprecedented situation, whether conventional classroom education is replaced by non-conventional or the virtual classroom. Even more pertinent contention is the significance of nonverbal education imparted to law students. Can advocacy skills be imparted through nonconventional or the virtual classroom?

Distinctly, the black letter law can be taught by a virtual classroom. Black letter law refers to the basic principles of law, generally known and are devoid of dispute or doubt.

There is a plethora of e-books, articles, literature, lectures, videos, webinars, etc. accessible online that facilitates the teaching of the black letter law.

However, the core concern of imparting and inculcating advocacy skills through virtual classrooms exists. Legal education is an amalgamation of black letter law, personality development, practical and clinical learning that results in incumbent law professionals. Their learning is guided and supported by one’s advocacy skills, which is indeed very personal and individualistic. Albeit, this skill is built, developed, and nurtured in the course of every law programme. There are moot courts that build and brush the advocacy skills of a law student.

It may be noted that under the Bar Council of India, Rules on Legal Education, moot court exercise is of mammoth part of legal education. The Rules delineates the need and functioning of moot court exercise in law programmes.

The unprecedented pandemic has impelled academia to devise mechanisms to conduct classroom education and practical or pilot study virtually.

Moreover, an endeavor has been made by many varsities to conduct moot court competitions online. However, it takes one back to the point that does legal education rely on conventional education which in turn involves building advocacy skills in law students, in so far as nonverbal communication is inseparable.

The author is of the view that the seeds of advocacy skills can be sowed by the conventional classroom method because they include inter alia nonverbal communication.

A cursory perusal of qualities that an advocate ought to possess, suggested by Judge Edward Abbott Parry in his book The Seven Lamps of Advocacy (1923) resonates with the aforementioned view. One of the seven lamps of advocacy is the skill or the quality of eloquence. Justice E. Abbott Parry prescribed eloquence as one of the qualities of an Advocate because advocacy skill involves the skillful use of language, effective communication to convince the Bench. Even though the other qualities which are honesty, courage, wit, judgment, fellowship, and industry stand at the same level that of eloquence. The term eloquence does not restrict to way and fluency of speaking or the language used, it is more than that. It can be understood as expressing and communicating lucidly and effectively, be it drafting or oral arguments or submissions. The tone and tenor, the body language, the gestures, the expression of an advocate can be game-changer. Ergo, the conventional mode of legal education cannot be replaced or even substantiated by virtual education completely.

The new-age virtual teaching methodology will supplement conventional classroom training and education. Legal experts across jurisdictions can deliberate and disseminate their proficient knowledge to law students or professionals at the click of a button.

Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that virtual mode will play an assertive role in the overall educational system. It has emerged a new way of virtual education that will progress to the use of artificial intelligence that is devoid of emotional intelligence.

This virtual system might be the need of the hour however, it will not be able to replace the human interface in terms of their personal touch, sensitivity, emotions, tackling, convincing, negotiating, etc. It can, therefore, be concluded that conventional education systems are not inconsequential for professional courses like law and perhaps for the medical field.

Anchal Mittal
Faculty of Law
SGT University

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Colonial-Era Law To Fight Pandemic In India

The Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 is a law that was first created to tackle “bubonic plague” in Mumbai which was formerly known as ‘Bombay’. The law is meant to curb down the spread of this horrendous epidemics by extending special powers that are required for the implementation of containment measures to control the spread of the disease.

Since then the Act has been regularly used to contain various diseases in India such as swine flu, cholera, malaria, and dengue. In 2018, the Act was enforced as cholera began to spread in a region of Gujarat. In 2015, it was used to deal with dengue and malaria in Chandigarh, and in 2009 it was invoked in Pune to combat swine flu. Starting in March 2020, the act is being enforced across India in order to limit the spread of coronavirus disease in 2019.

LOOPHOLES OF THE ACT

The Act does not provide any power to the Centre to intervene in biological emergencies. It has to be substituted with an Act that takes care of the prevailing and foreseeable public health needs, including emergencies such as BT (bioterrorism) attack and use of biological weapons by an adversary, cross border issues, and international spread of diseases,”.

Behind the urgency to detect and quarantine suspected Covid-19 patients and the blaring call for social distancing lies a stark reality: in terms of enforcing laws to contain Covid-19, the Centre can do little on the ground. The legal inadequacy to tackle disease outbreaks was known for long, baby steps were taken, but at the end of the day, the country was not ready when it encountered another pandemic — arguably the severest since the 1918 influenza pandemic that killed around seven million people in the country. The main legal weapon the government possesses today is the Epidemic Disease Act of 1897, a hurriedly drafted short legislation to stonewall the bubonic plague that devastated life in Bombay in 1896, forcing people to migrate out of the city. Health is a state subject. Union government’s role could, at best, be advisory and coordinating in nature, since Section 2 of the Act only empowers a state to inspect people and segregate suspected patients. The only power the Centre derives from the British Raj-era law is on “inspection of any ship or vessel leaving or arriving at any port” that comes under its jurisdiction. The Act does not even mention airports. It is understandable — there were no airplanes 123 years ago. However, when the Centre drafted the 156-page Management of Biological Disaster Guideline in 2008 — followed in letter and spirit even today — the realization came that the Epidemic Disease Act was inadequate to deal with bioterrorism and international spread of diseases.

After all, the law does not bestow the Centre any power beyond issuing advisories and coordinating. It cannot even regulate the transfer of biological samples — imagine a coronavirus sample getting stolen while being taken to a laboratory.

During the first term of the UPA government, a public health emergency bill was drafted. But the bill went into cold storage after states called it an infringement upon their powers.

Later, during the Modi government’s first term, a similar draft was more sincerely followed up, with the health & family welfare ministry naming it Public Health (Prevention, Control, and Management of Epidemics, Bio-terrorism, and Disasters) Bill 2017, proposing to repeal the epidemic law of 1897. The draft bill explains in clearer terms the quarantining of suspects and isolation of the infected, in addition to empowering the Centre to direct states and district or local bodies as well as usurping powers bestowed to states under Section 3 if it is found to be “expedient and in public interests” to do so. In addition, the proposed law also embedded a provision marking that anyone intentionally violating the law could end up paying a fine of up to `1 lakh and face imprisonment of up to two years.

This provision could have been useful now given the rising instances of Covid-19 suspects skipping quarantine. Under current laws, police can charge someone under IPC’s Section 269 for negligent act and Section 270 for the malignant act for spreading an infectious disease that is dangerous to life.

Health Ministry concedes that there is a need to strengthen India’s legal framework but laws alone are insufficient. The problem arises mainly because of coordination and implementation issues. The home ministry, which usually takes the lead during crises such as earthquakes, floods, and cyclones, has taken a backseat, allowing the health ministry to coordinate with states as mandated by the Disaster Management Act of 2005.

FURTHERMORE ON EPIDEMIC ACT OF 1897

The seventh schedule lists health as a state subject, and different states have provisions that aren’t necessarily uniform and harmonized.

In the context of the Wuhan virus, the ministry of health and family welfare (MoHFW) suggested that states/UTs invoke Section 2 of the Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897, and many states/UTs have done so. The third plague epidemic also originated in China, though in Yunnan, not Wuhan. It, too, was imported, through port cities like Mumbai (spreading to Pune), Kolkata, and Karachi. The upshot was the Plague Commission, which identified September 23, 1896, as the first official outbreak of the plague, and delivered a mammoth five-volume report.

Majorly four questions were asked in this report-

  1. How did the plague originate in different parts of India?
  2. How was the disease communicated?
  3. What were the effects of the curative serum?
  4. What were the effects of preventive inoculation and how many people died as a result of the plague?

Now, these were surely not easy questions to answer, as it depended on timelines and region. On all India basis, Plague Commission computed mortality as 0.5 per 1,000 per year. But that is for three years- 1896 to 1898. With an extended timeline(the plague lingered), estimates of Indian Mortality figures range from 2 million to 10 million.

The plague led to the Epidemic Diseases Act, enacted on February 4, 1897. And sadly once the legislation is passed, we rarely read the statement of objects and reasons. In this case, the statement of objects and reasons said, “The object of the Bill is sufficiently explained by the title thereof and the spread of the bubonic plague from Bombay, unfortunately, renders it unnecessary to dwell on the reasons for its introduction in Council. It may however be stated that its main provisions are based upon those contained in Sections 4.34 and 47.1 of the City of Bombay Municipal Act, 1888.” Right after this special power was conferred on local authorities, and were implemented with the oppressive force for example, in Bombay and Pune. a Plague Committee was established in March 1897 by Bombay Presidency and WC Rand was made the Chairman.

The Epidemic Diseases Act is very perfunctory. With only four sections, out of which one is the title. Section 2 confers special powers on the government, which are over and above its normal powers. One needs to understand that no statute is constant over time.

And this legislation from 1897 is no different. It was amended in 1914, 1920, and 1956. Nonetheless, on reading it you will realize it is vintage. For example, in Section 2(2)(b), the state government can take measures and prescribe regulations for “the inspection of persons traveling by railway or otherwise, and the segregation, in hospital, temporary accommodation or otherwise, of persons suspected by the inspecting officer of being infected with any such disease”. Similarly, under Section 2A, “When the Central Government is satisfied that India or any part thereof is visited by, or threatened with, an outbreak of any dangerous epidemic disease and that the ordinary provisions of the law for the time being in force are insufficient to prevent the outbreak of such disease or the spread thereof, the Central Government may take measures and prescribe regulations for the inspection of any ship or vessel leaving or arriving at any port in [the territories to which this Act extends] and for such detention thereof, or of any person intending to sail therein, or arriving thereby, as may be necessary.”Railways, and ships, and ports, and what about airlines and airports? Of course, an Act as old as 123years was not capable of foreseeing airplanes at that time. Along with this, there used to be a Section 2B that allowed state governments to requisition private vehicles in times of plague, but that has also been repealed.

It’s very essential for us to understand that a statute just doesn’t become dysfunctional simply because it is old, but it does become dysfunctional when it is overtaken by events. Among other things, when it has been overtaken by the Constitution. “The seventh schedule lists health as a state subject, and different states have provisions that aren’t necessarily uniform and harmonized. Some have amended the Epidemic Diseases Act; some have their own public health laws. (Tamil Nadu was the first, in 1939).”

With regard to Public Health, Kerala has two separate public health Acts—one for Travancore-Cochin, and the second for Malabar. Initially, there were plans to unify the two, but nothing happened till date on those lines. Today, health issues are very different, and broader too in comparison to what we had in 1897. The role of the private sector is different from what it was then. In 2017, MoHFW prepared a bill known as “The Public Health (Prevention, Control, and Management of Epidemics, Bio-terrorism, and Disasters) Bill”. This is still a draft. The world has moved beyond epidemic diseases. The Epidemic Diseases Act has four sections, this draft bill has fourteen, with 14(1) being probably the most important. This says, “The Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 is hereby repealed.” Incidentally, the 1897 legislation doesn’t define “epidemic”. Admittedly, the word is difficult to pin down. But, the bill makes an attempt, saying, “Epidemic means the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health-related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy”.However, it is still a bill.

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The COVID-19 Lockdown Period and the Faculty of Law: A Report Card

The Covid-19 Pandemic forced Universities across the world as well as in India to suspend on-campus teaching and learning and shift to online classes. Online teaching and learning is an ideal method as it enforces social distancing and physical distancing to resist the spread of the epidemic. As soon as the Covid-19 crisis broke out in India, SGT University shifted to the online mode from Mid –March and as such remained unaffected by the extended national lockdown until now. The faculty members of the Faculty of Law started giving lectures online (on Zoom, Webex, etc). Study materials and assignments were shared on Google Class Room for the finished topics.  During the transitional period,  there were some technical glitches, but soon, both, the students, as well as the faculty members of the Faculty of Law, adapted to the online mode at ease.  As the online mode allows innovative methods of teaching with the help of technology and online tools, the teachers have been very enthusiastic about delivering their lectures by using the available online tools. As a consequence, the students have found it very convenient to access lectures, study materials, and assignments.  Even a shy or reticent student has participated in the class discussion with teachers through online mode by using chat options. There is a sense of feel-good factor among the students as they have been kept busy through this lockdown period with the scholastic activities, instead of sitting idle.

Shubhangee Sinha, a first-year student of BA., LLB  explains the merits of the online mode classes by saying that “I have been taking the online classes of the  Faculty of Law on Zoom every day ever since the lockdown happened due to the Corona outbreak. The student continued saying that, “The online classes are interesting because the teachers are helping me to understand the concept better with the help of different pedagogic tools available online”.

Nayan Dhari Singh, a first-year student highlights the advantages of online classes by stating that, “I appreciate the Faculty of Law for opting the online mode in the alarming situation like COVID-19…… I found the lectures very interesting because we all tend to lose our concentration while a lecture is going on in the regular classroom but in the case of online mode, I  could review my teacher’s lecture at any point in time by rewinding the audio or video of the lecture”.

Rohan Yadav, a first-year student says,I have been hooked up to  Zoom for a couple of hours to join the online lectures during this lockdown period. It is a novel initiative of the Faculty of Law to complete the syllabus on time.  I have been kept tight by the faculty members with assignments and study materials throughout this break”

However, some students faced problems because of poor internet connectivity and audio issues. Vanshika Sharma, a first-year student points out that the issue of internet connectivity is a key challenge for most students as “many students have the 1GB or 2GB daily data plans on their phones — not everyone has WiFi at home — and they have to manage classes on that” which becomes difficult. In general, the online classes were well-received and attended by the students.

Apart from online classes, the students were informed about the availability of diverse online study materials related to their course work in various platforms so that they could access those materials.  For example, the students can avail of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) of the National Law University of Delhi. The online materials of e-PG Pathshala, SWAYAM, the National Project on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL), National Knowledge Network, (NKN), and National Academic Depository (NAD) can be accessed by the students. Further, the students were asked to register for free online courses of more than 3,800 courses and 400 specializations being offered by Coursera until July 31, 2020.

In addition to this,  the online Mid-Sem Test was conducted from 8th April to 14th April 2020 to evaluate the academic progress of the students.  Further,  as there is a surge of webinars in this crisis period, the students of the Faculty of Law have been asked to attend virtual talks or panel discussions or conversations about the different dimensions of law. They were asked to enroll for online internships to enhance their professional skills as well as to enrich their profile as they have lots of time at their disposal now. The faculty members have been consistently informing the students about such activities regularly. The Faculty of Law recently organized an online legal quiz for the students in which the students participated in large numbers.

 In a nutshell, the academic activities were kept at its pace as planned in the academic calendar at the Faculty of Law despite the unprecedented health crisis that has unfolded. The online classes are off as the syllabus has been through now.  Yet,  the faculty members are in touch with their respective classes to clear doubts of the students and provide them updates about the academic events. The students are preparing for the forthcoming end semester exam with full confidence and are looking forward to a brighter next academic year.

Dr. Mahalingam M
Associate Professor
Faculty of Law
SGT University

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Indian System of Medicine Bill 2019 and the Homoeopathy Bill 2019

Passage of the Indian System of Medicine Bill 2019 and the Homoeopathy Bill 2019—— A Quantum leap in Indian  Systems of Medicines and Homoeopathy Education?

In post-mid-March, amidst the Corona epidemic outbreak, the two important bills— The National Commission for Indian System of Medicine Bill, 2019 and the National Commission for Homoeopathy Bill, 2019 got the nod of Rajya Sabha by a voice vote.  In light of the above, the existing laws namely the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 and the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973 would lapse. These bills entail for structural as well as institutional changes in the Indian systems of medicines and Homoeopathy and in the spheres of its education.  As the old laws were ineffective to contain the anomalies, discrepancies, and subsequent malpractices, it is laudable legislation in the sense that it aims at streamlining, regulating and organizing the age-old diverse Indian systems of medicines(Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and SowaRigpa) and Homoeopathy into a  legitimate,  unified or integrated and regulated system of alternative medicine. Further, the proposed revamp would result in transparency, gaining public confidence and eventually due recognition.

As the Indian systems of medicine and the Indian medical education systems are inextricably linked, to revamp the Indian Systems of Medicines, first of all, the Indian medicine and Homoeopathy education needs to be recalibrated or re-oriented so as to ensure the availability of highly qualified medical professionals. By doing so, the prevailing ills of the Indian systems of  Medicine and Homoeopathy systems in our country can be checked. Over the years, under the aegis of public and private stakeholders,  the proliferation of Indian systems of medicine and Homoeopathy educational institutions across the country,  but with a falling academic standard is a reality. Based on the statistics from the Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), the total number of Indian systems of medicine and Homeopathy colleges at present are 729 colleges, out of which Ayurveda-413, Unani-55, Siddha-13, Sowarigpa-03 and Homeopathy-245 colleges with an annual intake of 47,323 UG seats and 6,172 PG seats. Barring a few colleges, most of them are cash- strapped and are facing several issues to fulfill the academic pursuits.  To sum up, the Report of the then Planning Commission found out that  the Indian medicine and Homoeopathy education is commonly plagued by various  issues such as alleged irregularities in grant of recognition of colleges,  unqualified and incompetent  teachers, noncompliance of uniform student admission rules,  no standard curricula, lack of  infrastructure, funding and research, no periodic assessment of Indian medicine and Homeopathy  medical institutions, etc.,

Given the above facts,  in order to elevate the standard on par with the modern medical education like MBBS,  the new legislations have the following drastic measures to be adopted for the advancement of Indian medicine education and Homeopathy in the coming years.  To enforce uniformity and transparency in admissions of the Indian systems of medicine and Homoeopathy, a  National Eligibility-cum-entrance test (NEET) for undergraduate courses and a post-Graduate National Entrance Education Test for post-graduate courses would be conducted. For granting a license to practice as a registered medical practitioner of  Indian systems of medicine and Homoeopathy, there will be a National Exit Test to check or control the practice of quacks. National  Teachers ‘Eligibility Test (NET) for Indian systems of medicine has been proposed for the appointment of teachers so as to ensure a high standard of teaching as well as for the advancement of research. There will be a regular periodic assessment by the members of the advisory bodies for the extension of recognition and for quality assurance. An interface between Indian Systems of Medicine, Homoeopathy and modern system of medicine will be encouraged by a joint sitting of the Commissions on a regular basis. The above ameliorating measures will definitely herald in qualitative differences in imparting Indian systems of medicines and Homoeopathy education across the country unlike in the past.

To implement the above agenda, it is proposed to set up national commissions for the Indian systems of medicine and Homoeopathy to promote, regulate and streamline the same. The proposed structural and institutional changes would upgrade the Indian medicine and Homeopathy education.

The enactment of these legislations is timely and the need of the hour because of the holistic treatment or integrated treatment for the various ailments is gaining momentum as highly recommended by the medical experts nowadays. The Indian systems of medicines are getting a wider acceptance and popularity not only in India and also abroad never before. In fact, Ayurveda medicine is India’s soft power and the Indian systems of medicines are our cultural heritage which needs to be preserved, protected and promoted with a contribution of well-trained medical professionals by establishing a well-tuned and well- equipped Indian systems of medicine and Homeopathy educational institutions across the country. The new legislations are a giant leap forward in terms of policy measures that would facilitate the process of achieving excellence in Indian medicine and Homoeopathy education.

Let us hail the legislations!!!

Dr.MahalingamM
Associate Professor
Faculty of Law
SGT Private University

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An Open House Discussion on Criminalising Marital Rape at the Faculty of Law, SGT University

An Open House Discussion on ‘Criminalising Marital Rape in India’ was organized by‘Legal Manthan’ – An Academic Association of the Students of the Faculty of Law, SGT University on 17th January at the Seminar Hall of the Faculty of Law. Three student panelists from the Faculty of Law presented their papers focusing upon the merits and demerits of criminalizing marital rape. One of the panelists pointed out that the various sections of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) discuss the protection of women against crimes. Still, the crime against women has been increasing as pointed out by the National Crime Record Bureau recently. Further, it was argued that though marital rape is on the rise in our country,   it is not yet criminalized, because of various socio-legal reasons. The papers of the panelists were well received and provoked an intense discussion among the audience which included students and the faculty members. As marital rape is a contentious issue, it was a delight to see the active participation of the students.  The students debated for and against criminalizing marital rape. The pros and cons of the issue were deeply analyzed.

Further, the discussion brought to the fore the procedural lapses and the existing legal ambiguities. It was argued that there should be some legal remedies available to the victims of marital rape. At the same time, men should not become scapegoats because of the criminalization of marital rape. The audience suggested the various guidelines for strengthening the criminalization of marital rape. The probing questions of the students enriched the discussion as well as enhanced knowledge on the chosen theme. It was not only an informative and insightful discussion but also sensitized the students of the Faculty of Law on marital rape. It was well attended by the students and the faculty members respectively. No doubt, it was a candid and engaging discussion by the audience. Given the constructive discussion and interests shown by the students, we have planned open house discussions on contemporary socio-legal issues every fortnight at the Faculty of Law.

Inputs from
Prof.(Dr.)Manjula Batra
Dean
Faculty of Law.
SGT University

Dr.Mahalingam M
Associate Professor
Faculty of Law
SGT University

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Kick Start Your Career in the World of Law with the Faculty of Law Offered by SGT University

SGT University came into existence in the year 2013 but the seeds for its magnificent growth were sown way back in 2002. SGT University’s Faculty of Law was established in 2014 with the aim to develop academically competent legal professionals. Highly qualified and experienced Faculty have not only designed their curriculum in keeping with the emerging areas in the field of law but also at facilitating the academic growth of students and groom them to compete for prestigious positions in the field of Law and Judiciary. Apart from studies, top law colleges also lay emphasis is also laid on organizing seminars, conferences and extension lectures on current legal issues, thus facilitating students to interact with nationally and internationally renowned legal luminaries.

SGT College in Delhi NCR is known as one of the best law Universities in Gurgaon.

Why Law at SGT University?

  • SGT University offers inter-disciplinary Research and Project-Based Learning
  • Student fraternity from all regions of India ensuring cultural diversity for a vibrant campus life
  • Student exchange programs with Top International Universities
  • Student-centric teaching methodology to make students future leaders

Student Exposure

The Faculty of Law organized its 5th Moot Court Competition in which students from across 35 law schools of the country participated. Hon’ble Justice B.B. Prasoon, former Justice, Punjab, and Haryana High Court was the Chief Guest at the Inaugural ceremony and Shri P. K. Malhotra, Former Secy, Law and Justice and currently Secy. General, ICADR. The valedictory address was delivered by Hon’bleMr. Justice Deepak Mishra, former Chief Justice of India. In addition to this, Hon’ble judges of the Supreme Court of India, Hon’ble judges from various High Courts and Lower Courts along with senior advocates and other legal luminaries have been kind enough to preside over many of our Seminars and other educational programs thus motivating to students to pursue the study of law. The students have been also provided internships at reputed institutions like the National Human Rights Commission, National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, Delhi, Delhi Dispute Resolution Society, Department of Law, Justice, and Law Affairs, Prayas NGO, Delhi, Law Firms, Gurugram.

Some of the important events conducted by the Faculty are a seminar on Introduction to Arbitration Law in India, Seminar on Electronic Evidence; Issues and Challenges, Conference on “Data Privacy Challenges and Solutions (Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018), among others. Further, a Workshop on Mediation was also conducted.

Career Prospects

At SGT University, students are provided with complete exposure to corporate culture, placement counseling, personality development sessions, core and, soft skill developments and many more things are done for all over the development of students. Our students continue to find professional careers in institutions like the National Human Rights Commission, National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission, Delhi, and Delhi Dispute Resolution Society, etc. The Faculty of Law has an academic partnership with National Law University Bangalore whereby students get the opportunity for Interdisciplinary Research and Project-Based Learning. By pursuing law at SGT University, students find themselves competent enough to face the real world and build their space as a professional in Judiciary, civil services, public prosecutor, litigation, legal advisors in private firm, corporate counsel, intellectual property rights, NGOs and Thinktank, academics, Defense Services (JAG), Legal Journalism, Legal Process Outsourcing, Legal officer in Bank, Insurance Companies, Court Clerk and other Govt. /Private Sector Jobs.

Regular classroom Lectures are held adequately with Presentations, Interactive sessions, Group Discussions, Seminars are the various teaching methodologies to help teaching-learning. The course curriculum is designed in such a manner that for the honors courses, a student can choose two areas of his/her own choice for specialized study. This specialized study in their chosen fields equips them for professional challenges.

SGT University aims at providing knowledge to its students to such an extent that they find a suitable place in the court of law to provide justice to the society.

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A career in Law, without being a Lawyer

Pursuing a career in law is in great demand today. The legal profession is not only intellectually satisfying and financially rewarding it is also very adventurous and exciting. The role of lawyers has evolved and expanded over the years.

With the advent of globalization and liberalization, rapid changes in the social, economic, political, and cultural aspects of society have created a great demand for legal professionals. This increase in demand is not only for lawyers who join the bar but for lawyers who would help to serve a variety of core and non-core legal functions. Thus today lawyers are required in the corporate sector as in house counsels, who advise on legal matters relating to the businesses. These in-house counsels play an important role in drafting, vetting, and negotiating contracts.

Further, in-house counsels are also required in multi-national companies, private companies, private banks, government agencies, public sector undertakings, public and nationalized banks, etc. Besides many lawyers can join law firms that are engaged in the practice of law. In such firms, there are several lawyers who work together as one entity. They advise clients about their rights and the legal recourse that they can take if required.

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In addition to the above lawyers are required to work for NGOs on various socio-legal issues that impact the vulnerable sections of the society. Many law graduates can have a very meaningful career in this field. Joining the judicial services as judges and the civil services as administrative officers are other challenging professions available to the law graduates.

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Academia is one area that is expanding considerably in present times. After obtaining a law degree, a law student may also pursue higher studies and join legal educational institutions. Working with the media is a very challenging proposition today. This field opens wide opportunities for young lawyers to work as legal correspondents.

In a nutshell, as the society develops and grows more and more legal professionals will be required in specialized fields, such as environmental law, intellectual property law, constitutional law, family law, property law, arbitration law, mediation law, etc.

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