Impact of Covid on Education System

Coronavirus Infectious diseases 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory syndrome first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and since then has spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic all across the globe. the common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of smell and taste; The virus is primarily spread between the people during close contacts. As of May 16, 2020, more than 4.56 million cases have been reported across 188 countries and territories&more than 3,08,000 deaths; Although the Recovery rate is more than 1.64 million people.

With the huge spread of disease, in the second week of March, state governments across the country began shutting down all the public places where there are chances of gathering and possibility of spread of the virus. These places include schools, colleges, offices, spiritual places, restaurants, cafes, gyms, and many other social gatherings places. Only the places that provide necessary services are allowed to stay open such as grocery stores, hospitals, medical stores, etc. The imposed shutdown is temporarily measured to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus& now it is close to a few months now and there is no certainty when the lockdown will be lifted. It is quite a crucial time for all the sectors as it is not only affecting the health of the people but also triggers the nervous system in the human body and adversely affects the economy of the country.

Read Also: Future of Education System Amidst Covid 19

One of the great impacts of Covid-19 is on the education sector of the country. Board examinations, nursery school admissions, entrance tests of various universities and competitive examinations, others, are being held during this period. As the days are passing by with no immediate solution to stop this outbreak, the closure of school and university is hugely affecting the learning across the country. The structure of the education system i.e. learning methodology, teaching techniques &assessment methodologies, are quite affected and result in a shift to online education with most focus on virtual education to accomplish the set aims and objectives. But only a handful of schools and universities could adopt such methods and the low-income private and government school are quite inefficient to adopt the same, thus resulting in a shutdown. Not only the school, but the pandemic has also significantly disrupted the higher education sector as well, which is a critical determinant of a country’s economic future.

Also, the employment rate had a huge fall due to the spreading disease. Recent graduates in India are fearing the withdrawal of job offers for cooperates because of the current ongoing economic crises. The centre for Monitoring Indian Economy’s estimates on unemployment shot up from 8.4% in mid-March to 23% in April and the urban unemployment rate to 30.9%. The pandemic has transformed the centuries of old teaching methods, chalk-talk teaching model to one driven by technology. To overcome the increasing interruption in the education system during Covid-19, some possible alternatives or solutions can be used which includes the help of power supply, digital skills of teachers and students, internet connectivity, it is necessary to explore digital learning, distance learning program can be included, provide support for digitalization to teachers and students.  This disruption in the delivery of education is pushing policymakers to figure out how to drive engagement at the teaching level while ensuring inclusive e-learning solutions and tackling the digital divide. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore that technology plays a crucial role in the educational system and the demand for the current situation. In this time of crisis, a well-rounded and effective educational practice is what is needed for the capacity-building of young minds. It will develop skills, which will lead to their employability, productivity, health, and well-being in the decades to come, and ensure the overall progress of the student as well as of India.

Ms. Ruby Yadav
Asst. Professor
Faculty of Education

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Take the next step for a brighter future with SGT University Education Loan Programme

We all are aware that education is the stepping stone towards a bright future. One’s education is what defines a student and opens a pathway to a successful future. Every ambitious or an aspirational student wants to work hard and excel in studies.

Therefore, SGT University has tied-up a link with PSU Bank for arranging hasslefree education loans and has brought the loan availing process right at the fingertips of our students.

SGT University does believe that studying in a private university is a daunting task when you look at the finances involved. Not only can the tuition fees be expensive but the choice of your university can put weight on your budget as well. And, like any other loan offering, the processing of education loans might involve a detailed documentation process, which can get quite cumbersome at times. But, with easy availability of education loans through the SGT University Education Loan Programme, students no more find any hurdles in their pursuit of higher education.

Here’s how you can apply for an education loan, all you need is:

* KYC Documents:
1. Pan Card
2. Voter Id
3. Aadhar Card
* One Color photograph
* Financial Documents:
1. Bank account statement for the past 3 months
2. Latest Salary Slip
3. 2 years ITR

What benefits you would get?

*High Approval Rates
* Fast and Transparent Loan
* Collateral/Security Free
* 100% Loan for course
* 4 hours instant approval
* Low Rate of Interest

Our education loan program aims at providing financial support to aspiring students for pursuing higher professional education in SGT University. So, that you pay your course fee in easy and affordable EMIs through an educational bank loan.SGT University strongly believes in empowering you with the power of education financing, which will enable you to make a choice of education for yourself. Feasible financial aid that carves the road to a bright future and career prospects.

Disclaimer: This facility is being provided for the benefit of the students, we will not be held responsible for any objection raised by the bank while processing the loan application.

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Let Your Child Grow, Not Your Worries: SGT University Education Loan Programme is Here!

Here’s a question for India’s education-obsessed students: Is it the financial factor that is barring you from achieving heights in your career?
Shri Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University believes that the primary responsibility to bear the cost of the educational expenses of the student belongs to the family before the university grants financial aid.
But, by making higher studies in colleges or universities almost unaffordable and student loans quite unbearable, we risk declaring our best and brightest from pursuing higher education and securing a good-paying job in India. Let SGT University help you break that barrier by getting your loan approved in minimal efforts and zero collateral.
Introducing SGT University Education Loan Programme! With a mission and an aim to encourage every deserving student a chance to pursue higher studies, SGT University has established a link with PSU Bank for arranging hasslefree education loans for our students. SGTU believes that achieving a good education is everyone’s right. And, we are always there to help.
At times, the students face difficulties in getting education loans. But SGT University has made special arrangements with PSU banks to deal with cases of SGT students on a priority basis. This facility is also a big help for aspiring students.
Documentation Required For Education Loan
* KYC Documents:
1. Pan Card
2. Voter Id
3. Aadhar Card
* One Color photograph
* Financial Documents:
1. Bank account statement for the past 3 months
2. Latest Salary Slip
3. 2 years ITR
* High Approval Rates
* Fast and Transparent Loan
* Collateral/Security Free
* 100% Loan for course
* 4 hours instant approval
* Low Rate of Interest
Our education loan programme aims at providing financial support to aspiring students for pursuing higher professional education at SGT University. So, that you pay your course fee in easy and affordable EMIs through an educational bank loan.
SGT University strongly believes in empowering you with the power of education financing, which will enable you to make a choice of education for yourself.
An education loan can be a big hassle, but with stepping up it’s a cakewalk!
Note: This facility is being provided for the benefit of the students, we will not be held responsible for any objection raised by the bank while processing the loan application.
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Stay Active During COVID Lockdown

Staying active and fit is difficult at the best of times. But add the self-isolation rules associated with the current Corona Virus pandemic then keeping physically active becomes even more problematic. Self-Isolation has meant fewer opportunities for physical activity, with individuals spending the vast majority of their time at home. Gyms have closed. Incidental exercise falls away. Physical activity routines are broken. Guidelines have been prepared which include

  • Keep minimum of Six Feet Physical Distancing
  • Isolation
  • Frequent Handwashing
  • Facemasks

Exercises and diet tips could help you stay safe and stay fit and stay healthy.

Don’t Skip on Exercise

A good diet should be followed by an exercise routine. Remember to exercise regularly; even some simple exercises will go a long way in releasing the toxins from your body. It is recommended to exercise for 30 to 45 minutes, depending on your stamina. If you have not started exercising yet, then it is a good time to start. Regular exercise improves metabolism, which has a direct correlation with body immunity. You may involve in household activities or exercise on your terrace or indoors during this COVID lockdown.

The need for Exercises/ Physical Activity:

Physical Activity (PA) is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. There are two types of physical activities, namely, aerobic fitness and strength & balance. Physical activities like Active recreation, Sports, Cycling, Walking, Play, Dance, Gardening, House cleaning, lifting weights could be classified as different forms of physical activities.

Benefits of Physical Activity:

Physical activities are known to improvise the circulation & lung functions, improve the immunity levels to various infections, increase energy levels, helpful in weight management, decrease the risk of complications in Diabetes, CVD &  Hypertension, improvise your self-esteem and confidence level and reduce sleep deficiencies.

Physical Activity Recommendations:

For adults aged 18 – 64 years, it is highly recommended that a total of at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity throughout the week, or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity throughout the week, including muscle-strengthening activities 2 or more days per week.

Benefits of regular physical activity: It is known to reduce your risk of cardiac ailments, lower blood pressure, and lower complications and prevent diabetes, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels, help to build stronger bones, improvise mobility of muscles and joints and also prevent the risk of osteoporosis and may also prevent some types of cancer

De-stress Yourself

These are testing times, and a prolonged period of staying indoors has its implications on your mental wellbeing. The growing anxiety around the pandemic is another concern that is affecting millions across the globe. While the uncertainty might be overwhelming, there are few steps we can follow regularly to help relieve our stress, stress is known to have an adverse effect on immunity.

Practice Meditation

Too much stress releases the hormone known as cortisol, which impairs your response to immediate surroundings and makes your body susceptible to infections; you are left feeling constantly anxious. The best way to relieve stress is through meditation, it is a tried and tested activity to calm the nerves. Some simple ways to meditate is to close your eyes and observe the breath.

Benefits of Meditation:

Meditation reduces stress, controls anxiety, promotes emotional health, improves self-awareness, improves concentration, and improves cognitive skills.

Practice Pranayama

Anuloma Viloma pranayama is a breathing technique where inhaling and exhaling is not a continuous process, but one that is interrupted by several pauses. The practice of anuloma viloma involves interrupted inhalation and exhalation.

Anuloma Viloma pranayama can be practiced both in the sitting or lying position. It is a pranayama breathing exercise which is ideal for beginners. The practice of anuloma viloma involves interrupted inhalation and exhalation.

Benefits of Pranayama:

Boosts the immune systems, cleanses the nostrils, improves the digestion and functions of other systems, calms down the mind, relaxes your heart, improvises your nervous functions, improves your concentration.

Protect Your Eyes during COVID closed down

Visual discomfort is a frequent complaint about everyone as the whole world is on virtual platforms. Eyestrain and headaches blurred vision are some of the most common problems that could occur during this period due to the overuse of technological gadgets. Other problems include double vision, burning, and dry eyes, eye fatigue, light sensitivity, and after-images. Neck shoulder and back pain can also be related to viewing the computer keyboard and/or screen. To minimize the effects of these injuries some simple eye exercises could be useful as mentioned below.

How to Exercise Your Eyes

Here are a few different types of eye exercises that you can try, depending on your needs.

1) Blinking

Relax and sit comfortably with your eyes open. Now blink your eyes around 15-20 times regularly and as fast as you can. After that keep your eyes closed for say 15-20 seconds. You can repeat this eye exercise to improve vision for a minimum of 4 to 5 times daily.

Blinking keeps the eyes moisturized and prevents dryness. This also leads to the cleansing of eyes and prevent eye strain, especially when you are using laptops, computers, or smartphones. It’s especially advised to students or professional who spend all their day staring at computers or even to an average person as people spend almost 4 to 5 hours in a day on smartphones, the frozen stare on the screen is very toxic to your eyes as it sets many eye discomfort like eye fatigue, red-eye, itching or burning sensation. Blinking offers a break from the consistent stare and stops the constant absorption of blue light rays in your retina.

2) Palming

In this exercise, you need to sit straight and upright. Support your arms by keeping elbows on the desk. Now rub your palms together to make them warm. Place the middle of the palm on each eye simultaneously and fingers touching the forehead. Stay in this position for as long as the eyes feel the warmth from hands. This exercise can be repeated twice or thrice a day. Your eyes will feel the warmth of the palms and at the same time the muscles of the eyes will feel relax after an exhausting day at work, or when you are finished working on laptops or smartphones especially during this period of lockdown.

3) Changing Focus

To start this exercise, bring your thumb in front of the eyes at a distance of about 10 inches away from the eyes. Now focus on the thumb for approx. ten seconds. Thereafter, shift focus to any object that is 10 feet away from eyes, for about 10 seconds. Repeat this exercise for a good two minutes, Follow these steps at least once a day to strengthen eye muscles

This exercise also requires nothing but focusing your thumb. Stretch your arm, make a fist, keep your thumb facing upward. Focus on the thumb and now bring the thumb near the eyes till it is barely three inches away. Repeat the same procedure by bringing the thumb near and far from the eyes for about two to five minutes. This exercise can be done three to five times a day.

4) Figure of Eight

Sit straight and upright on a chair or on the floor. With the help of your thumb or any finger draw a figure of number 8 while keeping a continuous focus on the thumb/finger and keeping the elbow straight. Repeat this exercise for two minutes in a clockwise and anti-clockwise direction

Now that you know all these helpful eye exercises to improve vision fast, it’s important that you start doing them from now. Share these to your sibling and friends who often spend time on their smartphones or laptops and prevents them from developing a severe eye condition in the coming years.


Good snooze time for 7-8 hours is the best way to help you improve your immunity; lesser sleep will leave you tired and this could impair your brain activity. The lack of sleep will prevent the body from resting and this will impair other bodily systems and functions which could have a direct impact on your immunity. Lack of sleep adversely brings down your immunity and could put you at a high risk of infections.

Benefits of Eye Exercises:

Better vision prevents eye strain injuries, improve concentration, calm down the mind, improve work productivity.

Diet during COVID

Supplements and immunity-boosting foods

While all the above-mentioned tips will definitely help, the need of the hour is a quick boost to your immunity system to keep it fighting fit. Take care that you are getting the right amount of nutrients from your diet, to boost up your immune system. Here are a few tips on a few food groups that could help.

Stay Hydrated

Drink at least 8-10 glasses of water every day, to stay hydrated. Hydration will help you flush out the toxins from the body and maintain optimum health. Other alternatives include juices made of citrus fruits, watermelons, musk melons, and coconut water, to beat the heat. 

Vitamin C

This particular vitamin is a crucial participant in the army of immunity. It helps prevent the common cold. It acts as a powerful antioxidant and protects against damage induced by oxidative stress. Vitamin C is rich in citrus fruits Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower, green and red peppers, spinach, cabbage, turnip greens, and other leafy greens, tomatoes and tomato juice.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D supplements have a mild protective effect against respiratory tract infections. As the season is hot outside, people are confined to indoors and due to lockdown, there is a high risk of n Vitamin-D deficiency. The best way is to have a sunbath early in the morning. Best before 9.00 AM during the summers. Sunlight has been a natural source of Vitamin D and some other sources include dairy products, orange juice, soy milk, and cereals.


Zinc is a vital component to WBC (white blood corpuscles) which fights infections. Zinc deficiency often makes one more susceptible to colds and other viral infections. It is advisable to take a zinc supplement, especially for older people. Natural sources of Zinc include legumes, cereals, seeds, nuts, whole grains, etc.


Elderberries are full of nutrients including minerals like phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper, and vitamins, such as vitamins A, B, and C, proteins, and dietary fiber. Elderberries have antibacterial and antiviral qualities that help fight respiratory tract infections like cold and influenza.

Turmeric and Garlic

Turmeric bright yellow kitchen spice which contains a compound called curcumin, which boosts the immune function. Garlic has powerful anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties which enhances body immunity.

Apart from maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking supplements, the following self-care guidelines as preventive measures and to boost immunity with special reference to respiratory health.

  • Drink warm water throughout the day.
  • Practice Meditation, Eye exercises, and Pranayama.
  • Increase the intake of Turmeric, Cumin, Coriander, and garlic.
  • Drink herbal tea or decoction of Holy basil, Cinnamon, Black pepper, Dry Ginger, and Raisin.
  • Avoid sugar and replace it with palm sugar or jaggery if needed.
  • Apply Ghee (clarified butter), Sesame oil, or Coconut oil in both the nostrils to keep the nostrils clean.
  • Inhale steam with Mint leaves, Eucalyptus or Holy Basil or Tulsi leaves which could be useful to clean your nostrils

It is recommended that youngsters develop a healthy routine that best matches the needs of their academic schedule and outside commitments. It might be encouraged to take care of the basics, including keeping a regular sleep schedule, fitness activities just as they would a class, something simple as a 15-minute walk. It must be encouraged that youngsters stay well hydrated, consume healthy meals, and keep healthy food habits to keep themselves fit, healthy, and safe.

Dr. Sangeeth Somanadhapai
Prof & Dean
Faculty of Naturopathy & Yogic Sciences,
SGT University Gurgaon

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Artificial Intelligence in Health Care System

Artificial intelligence (AI) offers high precision technology solutions for the diagnosis, prediction of severity, and treatment options of a disease. AI has brought a paradigm shift to the healthcare system, driven by the increasing availability of medical data, and rapid progress of machine learning techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Deep Learning. In healthcare, AI is being used to mimic the human cognitive function in the field such as psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, speech, and facial recognition. A major area that uses AI techniques includes cancer, neurology, endocrine, nutritional, and cardiology.

Read Also: Artificial intelligence – Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

AI is an area of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines that work and react like humans. It comprises the design of “intelligent systems” that receive the relevant information from the source and takes actions to maximize the chances of success.AI-assisted system works in three steps which include i. receiving information as “input data”; ii. data processing using a machine learning algorithm; and iii. “output information” which is then used in decision making and action. The success of an AI system solely depends upon the authenticity of the input data i.e. the information, and the applied machine learning protocol to develop AI system. Here, AI has been employed in several ways to extract the most coherent information that can be used as an identifier for diagnosis and for analyzing disease severity. The researchers are focusing on the development of a new learning algorithm that can handle a large volume of information and provide precise output information in a reasonable time frame.

Read Also: Role of Artificial Intelligence In The Area of HR

We at SGT University working on the development of predictive models using feed-forward and back propagation-Artificial Neural Networks. It is being used to predict the pharmacological activity of new chemical entities and nanomaterials. In addition, it is also applied in the toxicity profiling of new substances.

Dr. Manish Kumar Gupta
SGT College of Pharmacy
SGT University Gurugram

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Precision Farming: Revolution in Agriculture

The next best thing in agriculture or the future of agriculture is called Precision Agriculture. With precision agriculture, farmers and soils work smart, not hard. The era of the internet, robotics, and data analysis has spawned a new incarnation of the agriculture sector, resulting in tremendous yields with less inputs. The wave of innovations started from Geo-mapping satellite developed by the US’s NASA to drones, which are frequently used to collect aerial data, moisture, temperature, and other weather data on the land are collected by sensors which provide an insight view of the health of the cultivable land. Advanced sensors and monitoring equipment have now enabled farmers to grab minute crop’s data continuously and, more precisely, thereby enabling farmers to make more strategic decisions to increase productivity, with a reduced harmful impact on the future environment.

As compared to U.S Precision Agriculture investments in India have generally lagged, but recently this era of technology is gaining momentum by using higher technology and smartphone penetration. In November 2017, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation teamed up with the government of Andhra Pradesh to work upon data Mining skills for Agriculture to make future farming progressive and smart. Here at SGT University, we guide students not only to the traditional methods of Agriculture but also emphasizes the current methods of Precision Agriculture for agriculture service-industry occupations. The curriculum has been designed to get a thorough knowledge of different subjects like soil science, soil fertility, plant pests, precision agriculture, remote sensing for Agriculture, and data analysis. The curriculum has all the elements including geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) applied to agricultural production or management activities that will help to prepare students for challenging employment opportunities with different hi-tech companies.

Dr. Sonia Goel
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Agricultural Science
SGT University

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Role of Artificial Intelligence In The Area of HR

Developing an artificial intelligence workforce is a major competitive advantage. Here are a couple of HR trends that business leaders should prepare for:

Upgraded Candidate Experience. In many companies, artificial intelligence is seen in talent acquisition, as this is where companies see immediate results in reducing time to hire, increasing productivity for recruiters, and delivering an enhanced candidate experience that is simple, all at a lowered cost. With the help of artificial intelligence, there will be a massive upgrade within the candidate experience, and this aspect has already been proven true.

Here are two jobs of the future:

AI Trainer: This role ensures that the underlying systems of artificial intelligence can understand how to accurately translate queries and requests into actionable outcomes. They work to anticipate customer and employer intent so that every interaction with A.I. is as smooth and positive of an experience.

Read Also: Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

Head of Business Behavior: This role will allow you to analyze employee behavioral data such as performance data along with data gathered through personal and environmental sensors. The purpose of this role is to create strategies to improve the employee experience.

Top Applications of AI in HR

Among the numerous applications of AI in the human resources sector, some of the first changes HR professionals should expect to see involve recruitment and onboarding, employee experience, process improvement, and the automation of administrative tasks.

  1. Recruitment and Onboarding

During the recruitment process, AI can be used to the benefit of not only the hiring organization but its job applicants, as well. For example, AI technology can streamline application processes by designing more user-friendly forms that a job applicant is more likely to complete, effectively reducing the number of abandoned applications.

While this approach has made the role of the human resources department in recruitment much easier, artificial intelligence also allows for simpler and more meaningful applications on the candidate’s end, which has been shown to improve application completion rates.

Read Also: “Manufacturing Need” and “Artificial Intelligence” Means

Additionally, AI has played an important role in candidate rediscovery. By maintaining a database of past applicants, AI technology can analyze the existing pool of applicants and identify those that would be a good fit for new roles as they open up. Rather than expending time and resources searching for fresh talent, HR professionals can use this technology to identify qualified employees more quickly and easily than ever before.

Once hiring managers have found the best fit for their open positions, the onboarding process begins. With the help of AI, this process doesn’t have to be restricted to standard business hours—a huge improvement over the onboarding processes of the past.

Instead, AI technology allows new hires to utilize human resources support at any time of day and in any location through the use of chatbots and remote support applications. This change not only provides employees with the ability to go through the onboarding process at their own pace but also reduces the administrative burden and typically results in faster integration.

  1. Internal Mobility and Employee Retention

In addition to improvements to the recruitment process, HR professionals can also utilize artificial intelligence to boost internal mobility and employee retention.

Through personalized feedback surveys and employee recognition systems, human resources departments can gauge employee engagement and job satisfaction more accurately today than ever before. This is incredibly beneficial considering how important it is to understand the overall needs of employees, however, there are several key organizational benefits to having this information, as well.

Doing so has the potential to significantly reduce talent acquisition costs and bolster employee retention rates.

This technology is not limited to identifying opportunities to promote from within, however; it can also predict who on a team is most likely to quit. Having this knowledge as soon as possible allows HR professionals to deploy retention efforts before it’s too late, which can strategically reduce employee attrition.

  1. Automation of Administrative Tasks

One of the key benefits of leveraging artificial intelligence in various human resources processes is actually the same as it is in other disciplines and industries: Automating low value, easily repeatable administrative tasks gives HR professionals more time to contribute to strategic planning at the organizational level. This, in turn, enables the HR department to become a strategic business partner within their organizations.

Dr. Aarti Sharma
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Commerce and Management
SGT University

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Aquasomes: Self-Assembled Nanosized Ceramic Cores for the Delivery of Proteins and Peptides

Proteins and peptides of therapeutics use have emerged as a new class of pharmaceutics, for clinical application since the introduction of recombinant human insulin. Various proteins and peptides have been successfully used for the treatment of a broad range of diseases e.g. thyroid hormone in hypothyroidism and factor VIII for hemophilia whiles many more are still under clinical trials. Depending upon thein-vitro dissolution and in-vivo absorption behavior, proteins and peptides have been placed under Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) – Class III. They exhibit good solubility in aqueous or buffered media but have log P values less than zero. The permeability through intestinal mucosa is, therefore, low. This leads to a poor and inconsistent absorption of these drugs when administered through the oral route.

Numerous proteins or peptides with significant therapeutic efficacy are unable to express their absolute benefits when administered parenterally due to insufficient exposure/duration of their biological activity. Moreover, even a minor alteration in the secondary and tertiary structures of protein molecules can lead to the degradation of proteins. The denaturation of protein is effortlessly persuaded by a change in pH, a rise in temperature of the system, agitation, freezing, and exposure to interfaces. Therefore, formulation development for protein and peptide molecules is significantly more difficult than that of conventional drugs. This is complicated by the fact that the molecular sizes of proteins are much larger as compared to those of the traditional pharmaceuticals. Thus, a new delivery system that would retain the efficiency of the systemic delivery of these agents is required that could deliver the drugs at a controlled rate with prolonged biological activity. The mingling of nanotechnology and biotechnology offered a novel approach as a way-out to their formulation related problems and incarnated; aquasomes.

Aquasomes are three-layered (i.e., core, coating, and drug) self-assembled nano-particulate delivery systems composed of a nanocrystalline core (solid phase) coated with an oligomeric film which is assimilated with active moiety (Figure 1), with or without modification. All three events – self-aggregation of ceramic center (core), coating with oligomers, and loading of drugs are accomplished through non-covalent bonds and Van der walls forces. The surface of the ceramic core is non-covalently modified with carbohydrates, eg; cellulose, sucrose, trehalose, and provides structural stability to a largely immutable solid.

delivery of proteins and peptides

Figure 1: Compositional structure of Aquasome

The unique property of maintaining conformational integrity and a high degree of surface exposure can be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic biomolecules like – peptide and protein hormone, antigens, and enzymes. The modification of the surface of the ceramic core by deposition of carbohydrates creates a glassy molecular stabilized film that easily adsorbs a good amount of therapeutic proteins with minimal structural denaturation. As a result, it provides complete protection of aqueous characteristics to the adsorbed molecules against the degradative effects of pH and temperature. Since no change in swelling or porosity takes place with the change in pH or temperature.

Aquasomes may bring a new revolution in the field of protein and peptide delivery by bearing immense potential and capability of preserving the structural integrity of protein pharmaceuticals. In addition, these formulations can be used as immuno-adjuvants for proteinaceous antigens as they have been reported to evoke a better immunological response. In addition to that, exhaustive studies on aquasomes are required to establish pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and stability aspects to validate the desirable regulatory parameters in order to set up their clinical adequacy and commercial potential.

Dr. Vijay Sharma
Department of Pharmaceutics
SGT College of Pharmacy
SGT University Gurgaon

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