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Bioefficacy of Insecticides Against Citrus Butterfly in Kinnow

Citrus (Family: Rutaceae) has originated from tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia, particularly India and China. Northeast India is the native place of many citrus species. Citrus crops due to their unique diversity have greater adaptability for cultivation under tropical and subtropical conditions. India ranks third in the global citrus production after China and Nigeria. The genus citrus includes a large number of species and cultivars, among which, mandarin, sweet orange (mosambi, malta, or satgudi), lime and grapefruit are very popular. In citrus group plants, mandarin is the largest cultivated fruit in India and world due to its high vitamin C and juice content with pleasant aroma and flavor.

In India, mandarin is mostly grown in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana. In Haryana, the major citrus growing districts are Sirsa, Hisar, Bhiwani, Gurugram, and Fatehabad. Mandarin is grown in the area of 404 thousand hectares with a production of 4964 thousand tonnes in India (National Horticulture Board, 2019). Despite a significant increase in area and production of citrus, its cultivation is under the severe threat of abiotic and biotic stresses, and among them, the insect-pest problem is one of the major constraints. A number of insect-pests attack citrus plants in both the nurseries and orchards, inflicting heavy economic losses.

Among various pests attacking the citrus, the citrus caterpillar [Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Papilionidae: Lepidoptera)] is a serious pest, which is difficult to kill. Different management strategies are followed to avoid potential threats of a lemon butterfly, which consists of cultural, mechanical, and biological control practices, but these are not easily applicable, labor-intensive, and not very effective in the heavy attack due to various factors. Pesticides provide an easier and quicker option to manage pests. So, new insecticide molecules, particularly which are less hazardous to the environment, need to be evaluated from time to time to identify effective insecticides against pests.

The maximum efficacy was observed in quinalphos 25EC with 52.43 and 85.34 percent reduction of the larval population followed by chlorpyriphos 20EC with 48.06 and 72.67 percent. Quinalphos shows the most effective reduction in larval population over all other insecticides, botanicals, and bio-pesticides tested in reducing the infestation of a citrus butterfly, the reason being its broad-spectrum contact and stomach action. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam also showed better control due to their systemic action along with unique trans-laminar action. The least reduction of the larval population was found in nimbecidine 0.03%, i.e., 27.17 and 56.01 percent.

Dr. Meenakshi Devi
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Agricultural Science
SGT University

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The Past, Present And Future Of Medical Representatives

Medical Representatives (MRs), or Professional Service Representatives, Territory Managers, Drug Rep, Pharmaceutical Sales Rep, Detail persons are the most important but critical players at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry. They play a vital role in establishing a brand which is a stamp of approval of organized medicines. India’s more than six lakh medical representatives with pharmacy & management education qualifications are increasingly turning into teams of specialists, because a generalist medical representative may find it difficult to explain to a medical practitioner the complex and high-margin drugs they are promoting. Many National and Multi-National Pharmaceutical organizations are hiring management and pharmacy graduates as marketing executives and are paying hefty salaries. Prescription drugs account for close to 90% of India’s Rs 80,000-crore pharmaceuticals market, underscoring the need to take the doctors on board to sell products.

PAST:

A Swiss pharmaceutical company (F-Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.) wanted to introduce their products in Japan in 1904. They faced very poor sales through trading companies. Roche decided to begin direct sales in Japan by sending a German Physician Dr. Rudolf Ebeling, from their company. Dr. Rudolf employed Shohei Ninomiya, a Chief Hospital Pharmacist who was trained in medicine and fluent in German. Mr. Ninomiya thus became the first forerunner as ‘Propagandist’ of what is now called medical representatives (MRs). In 1916 The Burroughs Wellcome salesman who showed up to provide the doctor with his free copy of this year’s Excerpta Therapeutica could hardly have expected anything other than a warm welcome as Detail Man. By the early 1930s, prescription products were bringing in larger profits than over-the-counter drugs. It, therefore, began to make economic sense for companies to invest more heavily in sales staff who had the credentials and the techniques to win over physicians. The job responsibilities of a Medical Representative was one of scientific selling in every sense of the word, therefore their attributes have to be of a salesman first, last, and always.

PRESENT:

In today’s context an MR is an uninvited guest inside the Physician’s chamber. 51% doctors said that they are already aware of the drug information that MRs provide was revealed in a physicians annual study conducted by ePharma. MRs are required to meet the expectations of the Medical practitioners to go beyond the basics and deliver higher inputs to their practice. With a rising focus on evidence-based medicine and personalized treatment plans, doctors are hopeful that their next meeting with MRs involves a more scientific dialogue. Rising medico-legal cases in our country are also driving doctors to gain a complete understanding of the drugs they prescribe.

While the medical community has grown comfortable with digital tools, many pharma companies are yet to come up with a comprehensive digital plan that also integrates with field force activities. This has left doctors extremely dissatisfied. Even the MRs themselves, are an unhappy lot. Today’s MR is living in uncertain times, fearing professional redundancy and irrelevance. High degree of discontentment in the field force may be due to over-ambitious sales targets, confusion between drug pharmacology and sales, incomplete training and poor adoption of digital solutions, unable to satisfy physicians’ needs, job insecurity and poor recruitment rules of the companies and employing all types of untrained stuff with poor technical & communication skills.

There is an urgent need to bring about the change in the concept of selling products with modern therapeutic ingredients in the field of Oncology, Endocrinology, and Cardio-Vascular diseases. So the pharma industry must accept and adapt to scientific deliberations rather than simple service-oriented strategies.

FUTURE:

It is understood that Physicians interactions with medical representatives would be more valuable if the reps could share precise information that is relevant and personalized for them. The effectiveness and safety profile of the product will always remain the prime considerations to prescribe a drug and searched the most. Additionally new clinical information its relevance and Real World Evidence are those factors that also influence the selection of a drug. It is also predicted that physicians mostly continue to rely on scientific content provided or sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. The prescribing information remains the most sought-after data by physicians globally. Physicians place a higher emphasis on treatment guidelines and disease information also.

It is observed that top Pharma players employ a field force of around 5000 and reserve close to 20% of their total outlay on hiring and training them. More than 60% of the total promotional budget is allocated to field force activities. Pharma companies have not changed their style of operations and dealing with the medical community whereas regulatory, scientific, and technological changes are transforming the doctors’ world. A “physician-first” strategy for prompt responses to queries and requests, transparent product detailing, and maintaining a constant connection would be the need of the hour. Pharma companies should immediately discard old practices and develop authentic and relevant content that is concise and easily accessible in digital format. The preference of channels that physicians would use to engage with MRs will include web portals, emails to share information or updates, text and social messaging, and the use of video chats/ product profile videos to share information in the coming time.

A well qualified, nurtured, and trained Medical Representative would not only be a huge profit center for the company but also add value to the creditability of that organization.

Prof. (Dr.) Vijay Bhalla
Principal, SGT College of Pharmacy
SGT University, Gurgaon

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Concept of Shadkriyakala – Key to Early Diagnosis

Pathogenesis deals with the evolution of the disease. It deals with- various aetiological factors, How the aetiological factors bring about changes in the structural and functional units of the body i.e., VATA, PITTA, and KAPHA. How these molecular changes bring about structural rearrangements in various tissues and organs. How these structural changes rearrange the function of organs.How the disarranged function of one organ leads to the rearrangement of other organs i. E. Complications. Ayurveda describes in detail the six stages of evolution of diseases as Kriyakala which are stated as follows:

  1.  Chaya; accumulation of doshas because of the action of aetiological factors.
    2. Prakop; further increase in doshas.
    3. Prasar; dissemination of doshas which will respond to the stage of septicemia, viremia, or toxemia.
    4. Sthanasanshraya; localization of doshas in a particular tissue or organ
    5. Vyakta; manifestation of disease because of functional derangements.
    6. Bheda; further differentiation into a subtype of the disease.

Ayurveda emphasizes that the physician should not allow the disease to evolve further by recognizing the manifestation of disease at the earliest and guiding the patient appropriately.

It is surprising that even 5000 yrs before ayurvedic physicians could visualize the derangements at the molecular level as the root cause of the disease. Various signs and symptoms of the doshas vitiated according to their stage as mentioned below can be easily assessed by everyone on its own and can be consulted to the doctor.

  1. SANCHAYA Lakshana of doshas (stage of accumulation) Vata – stillness, and fullness of abdomen Pitta – yellowish discoloration, diminished body temp. Kapha-heaviness, lethargy
  2. PRAKOP (stage of aggravation) Vata – pricking pain due to gases in the abdomen Pitta – sour eructations, thirst burning sensation Kapha – anorexia, indigestion, malaise
  3. PRASAR(stage of Dissemination) Vata – the altered direction of doshas, distension of abdomen Pitta – increased level of burning, sensation with pain Kapha – anorexia, indigestion, malaise, vomiting
  4. STHANASAMSRAYA  –   (Stage of localization prodromal symptoms appear)
  5. VYAKTAVASTHA   (Stage of manifestation) In this stage, a disease with full signs and symptoms appear
  6. BHEDAVASTHA   is the chronic stage (Stage of complication)

So, there are six stages of disease manifestation according to Ayurveda. Clinical features start to appear only from the 4thstage. But a person can detect the signs of doshas imbalance himself in the first 3 stages and contact to the consultant, Thereby correcting it at a very early stage so as to check the disease progression.

Dr. Sangeeta Gupta
Professor
Department of Rognidan
FIMS, SGT University

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Should There Be Monetary Compensation For High Fedility Simulation Centers Across India?

India is having an outburst of new simulation centres across the country and the triggering factor is the Indian nursing council and Medical council of India taking steps towards integrating simulation-based education in the curriculum. Recently held a national level simulation conference, it was evident that old simulation labs were high on ROI achievements and newer simulation labs looking up to these achievements. As the last decade’s track record of simulation centers functionality or usability across India was very gloomy. Several simulation labs across the country have become museums of displayed simulators. Organizations are waking up to the fact that a good simulation centre requires huge investments. Both capital and operational expenditure can take a toll on the organizations. However, very few realize the need for various skilled manpower and constant up-gradation of simulators to keep up with the advancement in the simulation industry.

“If you think good Training is expensive, you should look at the cost of bad training”

When we talk about ROI some very famous models can always be brought to equations like The Kirkpatrick-Phillips Model and Frost-Sullivan Model. Eventually, they all talk about the tangible and intangible returns, qualitative and quantitative returns.

The real problem…

Looking at the WHO data on patient safety it is very devastating that at this stage of technology and human evolution we are still struggling with the health and safety of medical care. Looking at the magnitude of this problem like 4 out of 10 patients are harmed in primary and ambulatory care settings and 134 million adverse events in LMICs hospitals. The cost of it can be more than a trillion dollars. According to a Harvard study from 2013 India alone accounted for 5.2 million injuries that year. And experts say 50% of it can be prevented by simple measures.

Understanding the Indian private sector…

The biggest chunk of the ROI happens through minimizing the patient adverse events and improving the quality of care. So, we are going to eventually look at the ideal model for ROI for simulation centres. Can we include the monetary benefits of everting patient safety issues and improved quality of care in organizations? The answer is both yes and no. Yes, because if the simulation centre is part of the hospital then it makes sense that the hospital is going to reap the benefits. But if the simulation is part of the academic institutions that would never be able to completely reap its benefit. The overall benefit of simulation-based education is going to be on citizens of the country this may not directly help the institutions financially.

We have an indirect benefit of simulation on the entire Indian health sector through these simulation centres. So, how can we compensate and make these simulation centres more sustainable in the long run? Should GOI provide monetary support to these simulation centres across India? 1.4% of the Indian GDP was public health expenditure in the year 2018. This value is exorbitantly low compared with other LMICs. The government has been very proactive in trying to find several ways to increase the expenditure that can improve the overall health index of the country. So, is there a possibility of tapping these funds to ease the financial burden of the teaching institutes on simulation centres?

Is this a possible solution…?

Yes, this can be a possible solution it is not a new strategy, it should be made mandatory for the simulation centres as part of every health care industry across the country and they should have their revenue-generating models for self-sustenance. If they are still insufficient to meet the required financial obligation, then the gap should be filled in by the government. Can the Indian government fund the simulation centre enough so that they sustain and overcome the operational expenditure while recovering the capital expenditure over stipulated time?

It will reward greater benefits in the long run and will significantly bring down the health expenditure and improve the quality of care through it. A furthermore detailed needs and impact analysis can give us a clearer picture.

Dr. Sanket Patil

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Tele Dentistry – Tool for Oral Health Utility and Needs

The focus of Public Health Dentistry remains oral health well being of the general population. It reaches to the masses and tries to increase their knowledge and involve them in solving their own oral health problems. In the present Scenario the paradigm shifts towards the usage of technology as much as possible and avoidance of close human contact. Tele dentistry refers to the use of telehealth systems and methodologies in dentistry. It brings the general population face to face with the scientific literature available on oral health through oral health experts gives the people an opportunity to learn and apply the knowledge in their lives for good oral health which in turn will lead to good general health and will enable them to lead a socially and economically productive life. Tele dentistry brings the masses and the subject experts closer and defies the geographical cultural and social barriers. Tele dentistry has been around for some time and now the time has come to use its potential to the fullest. Tele dentistry can be utilized for Tele-education, Tele training, telediagnosis, and teleconsultation. Tele education in the form of nutritional counseling can be initiated by explaining the general population about the relation between nutrition and good oral health. Through teledentistry, the general population can be trained in proper utilization of oral hygiene aids and techniques which will enable them to prevent common dental problems and avoid interaction with the oral health care workforce and setup. Tele diagnosis can be done via online examination and patients can be explained pharmacological management and further course of action for treatment procedures at the nearest oral health care facility. Teleconsultation is consultation using information and communication technology to omit geographical and functional distance. It can act as a tool for all practitioners, academicians, and researchers to share and discuss research problems clinical scenarios and educational methods and techniques. Teleconsultation can help the general population by giving them an opportunity to interact with various experts in the field to gain knowledge about their oral health issues and management.  Tele dentistry can be utilized easily by the people due to the presence of network capabilities and tools which are easily downloadable, is user friendly, and is cost-effective. No additional infrastructure needs to be created and with available resources, manpower, and technological help it can prove to be successful.

Dr. Abhinav Bhargava                                                              Dr. Sachin Chand

Senior Lecturer                                                                           Reader

Department of Public Health Dentistry              Department of Public Health Dentistry

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Sheetapitta Explained by Dr. Deepika Yadav

Sheetapitta is a very common skin disease encountered in clinical practice nowadays. It can be clinically co-related to Urticaria of Modern Science. Urticaria is a common dermatosis affecting approximately 25% of the population. Childhood chronic urticaria is frequently encountered, however, epidemiologic data on pediatric urticaria are limited.

Speaking about Urticaria is similar to speaking about headaches: both causes and forms vary greatly. The spectrum ranges from short-lasting, mild discomfort to years of constant torment and from clear, easily avoidable triggers to (not so few) cases in which the cause is never found. Also, it is not always easy to identify boundaries between urticaria and other diseases. Some forms of allergies look very much like urticaria, and the processes in the immune system and the body are also partly the same, but also partly very different from the processes observed, for example, in connection with asthma, hay fever, or classic food allergies.

The many different clinical pictures of Urticaria can be divided according to their duration into acute (less than 6 weeks) and chronic (more than 6 weeks).

Urticarial rashes are commonly known as hives. They are most commonly caused due to an allergic reaction. In Ayurveda, Sheetapitta bears similar symptoms like that of Urticaria. There is no specific and satisfactory treatment in Modern Science for the condition of Urticaria. But, it can be effectively managed through the Ayurveda system of medicine.

Though, it is not a life-threatening problem, but, it seriously affects the quality of life. Few of the individuals suffer from hives for months or years together and the incidences of relapse are also frequently found. As per Modern Science, repeated intake of antihistamine or corticosteroids reduces the immunity of the body, and thus Ayurveda definitely has an edge in providing a comprehensive solution to this health problem.

Sheetapitta is caused due to vitiation of all the 3 doshas with predominant involvement of Vata. Dhatus (body tissues) involved are Rasa (Adya dhatu or serum) and Rakta (blood).

Causative factors for Sheetapitta according to Ayurveda are: excess intake of salty (lavana) and pungent (katu) food, consumption of a large amount of sour (amla) gruels (arnala and shukta), excess intake of mustard, exposure to cold wind, contact of cold substances, day sleep, improper emesis (asamyak Vamana), altered features in winter and rainy season, insect bite, krimi samsarga (contact of poisonous insects or bugs), etc.

Prodromal symptoms may appear like : Thirst, tastelessness, nausea, debility/ fatigue, heaviness of the body/lethargy, reddish discoloration of the eyes.

Clinical features may appear like : the skin marks or rashes on face, arms, trunk and legs  resembling the bite of neetle sting, itching, pricking sensation, nausea and vomiting, fever & burning sensation at the site of rashes.

Line of treatment includes : avoidance of the causative factors, oral medications and body purification therapy. Application of mustard oil all over the body or mustard oil mixed with Yavakshara and saindhava lavana. Medicated oil application prepared by the drugs of Eladi gana.

External application of medicated paste of Doorva (Cynodon dactylon) and Haridra (Curcuma longa), fine paste of saindhava (rock salt), kusta (Saussaria lappa) and ghee can be done.

According to the dosha dominance, Ayurveda Panchkarma therapies like Vamana (emesia), Virechana (purgation) or Rakta mokshana (blood letting) are carried with suitable medicaments.

Various Ayurvedic formulations are described in Ayurveda textbooks for Sheetapitta. Some of them are sootshekhara rasa, laghu sootshekhara rasa, Navakarshika GugguluTrikatu +SharkaraYavani +Vyosha +YavaksharaAardraka Rasa +Purana GudaYavani + GudaGuda + AmalakiNimba Patra + Ghrita +AmalakiArdraka KhandaVisarpokta Amritadi KwathaAgnimantha Moola +Ghrita, Yashtyadi Kwatha, Haridra Khanda, Brihat Haridra Khanda, Shleshmapittantako Rasa, Veereshvaro Rasa, Shitapittaprabhanjana Rasa, Vardhamana Pippali, Vardhamana Lasuna Prayoga.

A wholesome diet for Urticarial rashes is old rice, green gram, horse gram, bitter gourd, pomegranate, gooseberry, warm water, and light, freshly prepared, easily digestible food. Unwholesome diet and habits are milk and milk products, fermented foodstuffs, sour and incompatible foodstuffs, fish, sugar and its derivatives, alcohol, suppression of vomiting, cold water consumption, exposure to the cold breeze.

Lastly, stress should be avoided as it worsens the condition. So, meditation & yoga should be practiced regularly to relax the mind and refresh the soul.

Dr. Deepika Yadav
Assistant  Professor
Department of Kayachikitsa
FIMS, SGT University

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Machine Learning – A New Way of Life

Humans are known to reduce their workload by utilizing their intelligence to make the task easier and more comprehensible. Be it inventing the art of designing the wheel or discovering scientific advancements that have helped us to be ahead of all the species. Humans can teach living beings with its dominance however humans have also crafted the skill to train non-living items such as computer models so as to improvise their jobs. The idea of Machine Learning is correlated to the idea of Artificial Intelligence and its astonishing to understand that all these concepts were prevalent back in the 18th century. The very first machine which was trained to do jobs voluntarily was an automated chess-playing machine. The device had some predefined moves fixed using several mechanical levers. Although the application was very plain however it was revolutionary at that time to design a chess machine where one would compete with a machine. Tracing through the timeline, we find another application of AI where Alan Tuning helped in ending World War II just by inventing the machine that could decode a highly complicated code by the Germans in a couple of minutes.

The field of Artificial Intelligence has always been very interesting and full of possibilities. Before diving deeper let us understand why we need Machine learning? The programming approach that we have been using for problem-solving is a traditional approach. Wherein we provide a problem, provide a code as if how to solve a problem and come to a solution. However, in this approach, most of the logical thinking is done by the human brain, even if the logic behind the problem is redundant. In order to cope up with this situation we devised a process whereby using the problem statement and the previous output of similar logic, the machine not only processes the code but also remembers the key features of the problem so as to solve it. This approach made a revolutionary change in all peripherals of technology.

For understanding how a machine learning model works, let’stake an example of a student who is joining his very first day in school. The teacher teaches by showing a red apple that it’s an apple. Similarly, by showing the image of every fruit and describing the features of every fruit, the teacher explains it all. Now when the student is asked to detect the name of a fruit that is orange in color and tastes sweet with multiple seeds in it, he can very easily say it’s orange. This is exactly how machine learning works. It is important to note that the dataset or in the above example the instances that the teacher gave the student just to explain the fruits, plays a very important role. If any data in the dataset is missing or is incorrect then it directly affects the accuracy.

Nowadays Machine Learning is the new hype. Almost every possible field be it agriculture, cybersecurity, health sector, transport sector, finds some application or the other of ML. Now with machines taking over most of the sectors, threats for unemployment are a concern. However, we need to understand that in the application phase, ML will generate more jobs for the mass. Just like with the invention of cellular communication, there was a wave of employment. In a nutshell, Machine Learning is a great invention of humankind which would play as a major catalyst in our motto for futuristic advancement.

Manpreet Singh Bajwa
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
SGT University

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World is Moving Towards Vegetable Gardening Amid Corona Virus Pandemic?

The Covid-19 crisis has trashed the global economy. The lockdown is reviving nature and teaching us a new lesson. The incidences of coronavirus infection from the vegetable & fruit market have raised concerns about purchasing vegetables from outside. People are trying to avoid buying these from big markets or mandis, rather they are shifting to local markets or local farmers, to ensure delivery of safe food. Kitchen gardening and terrace gardening may help in the supply of fresh vegetables with minimum inputs. Growing our own vegetables not only provides fresh supplies but also helps to calm the mind, keep ourselves busy, and to educate kids.

These lockdown timings are perfect to start home gardening. Here are some tips to start your own garden at roof/ backyard-

  1. Recycle household waste and prepare compost: The waste from the kitchen and household stuff have many nutrients hidden in them. Don’t just throw them in the dustbin to rot. It can be used to make compost which can be applied to the garden plants. Put the waste in any bin, sprinkle some water over it and cover the bin with a poly-cover or lid. Let it rest for 10-15 days and turn the mixture with the help of a pole/ spade. Again, keep it for 7-10 more days, after that open it and dry the rotten mixture in sunlight and your compost is ready to use in your kitchen garden. Perform the whole process on the roof or any open place to avoid the foul smell.
  2. Collect pots and fill with soil mixture: You can be very innovative in the selection of pots. Use old bottles, containers, broken pots, firm polybags, and sheets to design attractive pots. This will also help you to recycle the waste generated at home. Carve/ paint beautiful designs on your pots so that they can be used as decoration also.
  3. Start with seasonal vegetables and locally available seeds: The seeds of seasonal vegetables are easily available in the market at shops. If this lockdown period doesn’t allow you to go out, you can extract seeds from the vegetables used for cooking purposes. Seeds from tomato, muskmelon, papaya, lime, chilies, capsicum, cucumber (sometimes when it is ripe), , etc., can be easily extracted and used for sowing after proper washing. You can directly put the seeds into pots or prepare a separate nursery and transplant the seedlings in pots.
  4. Water every alternate day: The plants need water very second day when they are young and every week when they are grown up. When you visit your roof or garden, don’t forget to look upon them and apply water.
  5. Look for any pest and disease attack: Though garden plants are least affected by any pest and disease infection, still, you need to watch your garden on a daily basis. Any pest, if seen, can be manually picked and removed from the plant. Any diseased fruit or leaves should be removed from the plant. Pressure spray of water also helps to reduce the infection. If necessary, apply home-made insect repellent.
  6. Enjoy your harvest: Now when you are done with all the care and practices, its time to harvest the joyful fruit of your hard work. Harvest vegetables periodically or when needed. Share your happiness in your neighborhood to encourage people to have their very own garden.

For more information, stay connected to our blogsite and experience the green world.

Dr. Vinita Rajput
Assistant Professor (Horticulture)
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences

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