, ,

Emotions Are Cognitive, Not Innate

Emotions are not innately programmed into our brains, but, in fact, are cognitive states resulting from the gathering of information through experiences. Emotions are an innately programmed in the brain’s subcortical circuits. As a result, emotions are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. In other words, emotions aren’t a response to what our brain takes in from our observations, but, rather, are essential to our makeup. Emotions are “higher-order states” embedded in cortical circuits. The brain mechanisms that give rise to conscious emotional feelings are not fundamentally different from those that give rise to perceptual conscious experiences. ”Emotions are not tools of cognition”, said Ayn Rand. Innate emotions come from the brain’s limbic system, a part of the primitive hind-brain. Cognitive processing of emotion is the business of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in the human brain.

Cognition and emotion – this phrase-connects two concepts, but it is ambiguous. For some people, it means the cognitive approach to emotion. For others, it means joining two domains, cognition and affect, that were previously thought to be disparate. A Handbook of cognition and emotion, implying as it does a productive marriage between the two research areas in its title, is something of an achievement. Cognition in emotion is like concept and action of valence, arousal, and control. A not uncommon reaction to claims about the role of cognition in emotions is to agree with the proverbial farmer, who, when asked for directions to the city, replied: “you can’t get there from here.”Emotions are both (conceptually) defined by appraisals and (empirically) constituted by them. Although recent research has shown that social cognition and emotion engage overlapping regions of the brain, few accounts of this overlap have been offered. Cognition and emotion are closely linked to music. The researcher concludes is a part of an ongoing program investigating how the dynamic aspect of musical emotion relates to the cognition of musical structure. Some research suggests that the expression of emotion in music shares properties with the expression of emotion in speech and dance.

Faculty of Behavioral Science
Department of Clinical Psychology
SGT University, Gurgaon, Haryana

Read More
, ,

Approach to a Child with Language Delay

Communication is one of the important developmental domains that help a child to label, explore, and learn new things about him and the environment around. It exposes a child to new stimuli around and helps to build social connections so important for a developing young nervous system. It enables a child to express, understand, and share his joy and convey distress as well. Language and communication is the key towards good scholastic performance as phonological awareness, thought processing and expression are shaped when a child starts remembering and discriminating sounds or using words for describing objects.

Delay in language development can be because of various developmental or psychological disorders e.g. intellectual disability, learning disability, hearing impairment, language disorder, psychosocial deprivation, autism, selective mutism, bilingualism, receptive aphasia, cerebral palsy, etc. Early identification and intervention for these children can have a significant impact on the quality of their lives.

Speech is an act of production of sound. Challenges in speech may manifest in trouble with specific sounds, patterns of words, or intelligibility. Types of speech challenges include articulation or phonological disorders.

Language is the ability to use speech to make others understand what we express and comprehend what others say. The deciphering of the message and its correct delivery is language. A child with language challenges may not use proper sentence construction and grammar (e.g. “I go to the school) or may have trouble deciphering complex sentences or thoughts. The ability to express oneself is called expressive language ability. The ability to decipher and understand language is called receptive language ability.

Communication is the broadest category of them all. Communication not only includes spoken language but also includes many other non-verbal cues, which are essential for interacting and communicating with others. It is common that if a child or adult has proper speech and language, that they still struggle with communication. This could take the form of not understanding sarcasm, gestures, or facial expressions, which are also cues to what someone is trying to communicate to them. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit these characteristics. Speech, writing, art, body, and sign language are all methods of communication.  Because communication is central to the development of a child, the failure of a child to speak by the age of 1year 6 months should be taken seriously. Language problems interfere with a child’s ability to communicate effectively, both in the expression and understanding of ideas. The outcome of such a delay may have widespread consequences ranging from academic to social adjustments.

In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a child development team.

Several studies have shown that children with speech and language problems at two and a half to five years of age have increased difficulty reading in the elementary school years. Children in whom speech and language impairments persist past five and a half years of age have an increased incidence of attention and social difficulties. Children with specific speech and language impairments at seven and a half to 13 years of age have been shown to have impaired writing skills, with marked deficits in spelling and punctuation compared with children with-out speech and language impairments.

It is important for parents to have an understanding of milestones of speech and language so that the delay or deviation of any kind can be determined in early childhood. Normal speech progresses through stages of cooing, babbling, words, and word combinations, whereas normal language progresses through stages of understanding and expressing more complex concepts.

When to refer: When speech and language delay is suspected, the child should be referred to the early childhood developmental center for screening. Based on the screening results the multimodal intervention if needed should be developed by the team of early developmental interventionists. The primary goal of an evaluation should be to rule out cognitive deficits with language delay. Doing away with the myths as boys speak late, with age speech will come, let’s wait for some more time is the need of the hour. As professionals, we need to make discrimination between expression and understanding by going through the age-appropriate milestones. Taking parental concerns seriously and ruling out red flag signs should be a priority.

Management of language disorder is dependent on the type of processing error or expression. If the understanding, which manifests with poor expression, is affected, the focus of the therapies should be comprehension and cognitions. The primary goals of therapy are to teach children strategies for comprehending spoken language and producing appropriate communicative behavior to help parents learn ways of encouraging their children’s communication skills. There is good data available to support the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention, which includes special education and speech-language therapy, particularly for children with a primary expressive language disorder. The effect of speech-language therapy for children with receptive language disorder appears to be much smaller than it is for other groups as the concern is understanding, which results in other associated behavioral problems as well. Hence the multidisciplinary developmental team approach is a must. Parents can effectively administer speech-language therapy, but must first receive training. The response to treatment is more varied when using parent administrators, which suggests that some parents may be more suited for providing therapy than others.

Parent Counseling:

Parents can be counseled that, once a diagnosis is made, there are professionals who can work with the child and parents, and that many times children show a positive response to this intervention. Looking at the increased incidence of developmental disorders like autism, communication disorder, social communication disorder it is advised that a child with presenting complaints of language delay with associated behavioral problems must be referred to a multidisciplinary team of child development consisting of a developmental pediatrician, psychologist, special educator, speech therapist and other allied rehabilitation professionals so that a comprehensive evaluation can be done as early as possible. Research shows that early diagnosis has a better prognosis than late identification and referral.

Imran Mushtaq
Research Scholar
Department of Clinical Psychology
Faculty of Behavioral Sciences
SGT University, Gurugram.

Read More
, ,

Goodbye Exam Stress – Causes of Exam Stress

“I swear on the God, next time I will start my preparation, a month prior to exam dates”

Some students are just exam persons – they have no distress getting their heads down to brush up and seem to fly without blinking their eye. But for many others examination can be extremely stressful. Even the word examination may leave them in apprehensions. The exam is stressful but certainly not the worst thing that could happen to you. Parents make it difficult, but friends don’t make it any easier either. To avoid this anxiety, it is crucial that we deal with exams with a clearer mindset.

Signs of exam stress:

Causes of exam stress are:

  • Inadequate or last minute preparation
  • High expectations
  • Pressure from Teachers and Parents
  • A feeling of competition with others
  • Fear of failing
  • Feeling less prepared
  • Self-induced pressure: There is a belief that grows in the minds of the children that they are required to perform well consistently in order to be judged as a good student.
  • Sole bread earner: Not everybody is on the same page when it comes to financial holdings. Students who work part-time and are also studying simultaneously fall prey to this stress.

WAYS TO COMBAT: Do’s &Don’ts

Designate an area for studying: A table is meant for studying. The bed for sleeping. An uncluttered table without your phone, laptop, and other distractions is the right approach. Lying on your bed or on the sofa in front of the TV will not only damage your posture but will hamper concentration too, so find a comfortable table and chair you can work on.

Take Breaks: Breaks are important. There is only that much that you can retain at a stretch. Take a short break every 45 mins. It’s a good idea to leave the room at this time and take a break of 15 mins. During the break avoid watching a TV serial, movie, stay away from gadgets, etc rather than drink water, grab a snack, wash your face, freshen up yourself, take a hot refreshing bath, etc.

Concentration exercises: It’s very important to be focused while you are learning or revising, and to be focused you need much concentration. To keep your concentration upright, you can do small activities like Deep breathing, Striking of all ‘e’ from a paragraph, focus on a single instrument while listening to a song, highlight important points while skimming, use flow charts and mnemonics and other graphic aids to remember better. If you have ever felt that you have forgotten what you learned yesterday, revise on 1-2-7-15-30 these days to make sure this doesn’t happen again.

Right Sleep: Sleepless nights for many can leave you feeling tired and low in energy. Set yourself a definite time to go to bed and stick to it no matter what. Sleep for 7-9 hours.

No caffeine. No smoking. It’s a myth that they help.

Don’t talk about the subject or the paper with your friends while meeting them on the day of the exam. Don’t try to read at the last moment. Once you have the paper, read only the first question. If you know it- perfect, if not move further. Divide your time based on each question.

Give yourself some time to relax before you start to study for the next exam.

Remember: It’s not a race. Don’t look at the supplementary sheets others take. Don’t keep looking at the clock. You don’t need to be the first one to finish. And once the paper is done, it’s finished. So no discussion about the paper and no analysis.

Don’t rely on cheating to get you the marks you want. It will leave you feeling bad and in later life, the information you should have learned could be important. So be honest with yourself.

Aastha Dhingra
Assistant Professor
Department of Clinical Psychology
Faculty of Behavioural Sciences
SGT University, Gurugram

Read More

A Paradigm Shift and Innocent Children

As there are many shifts during the century to century and different types of highs and lows face by society. Now we are facing the challenges of the 21st century and the major concerns are the empowerment of minority groups/population and westernization. Human resources are increasing as females are also contributing to the nation-building but simultaneously they are leaving behind their most precious and loveable part of themselves i.e. their children. This is an irony of this so-called educated society when parents ask someone to evaluate their children and provide the reason for their particular behavior. Educated parents are able to keep a very well record of their children’s progress in terms of achievements more specifically academic achievements but they are failing to keep a record of their innocent wishes and emotions. I have heard so many psychologists who advise the parents to spend quality time with their children however as a psychologist I can firmly say there is no way to compensate these sixteen wakings/Conscious hours of children with 2 hours of quality time. With these two hours of quality time, most of the children are developing Social anxiety, School anxiety, Internet addiction, Depression, and Conduct issues. Parents are the best identifier of their children’s covert and overt problems or insecurities. Not a single assessment tool and no one else’s observations and management would be so promising as parents. So many times children try to knock their parent’s consciousness but parents easily ignore these soft and warm knocks because of their preoccupations to justify themselves in this unjustified world. Conclusively the major concern of this 21st century should be the protection and care of these innocent children as they are the basic building blocks of any nation in the long run.

Soniya Vats
Assistant Professor
Department of Clinical Psychology
Faculty of Behavioural Sciences,
SGT University Gurugram

Read More

The Journey Of Becoming A Teacher From Gurus: Teaching Techniques Aiming Intact

Let me know, and it slips my mind. Train me, and I recall. Include me, and I learn.” – This statement has been the DNA of teaching since the beginning of this respectable and noble profession. There has been a ton that has changed in the world; however, the job of the teacher hasn’t changed a lot. A decent teacher turns people, which later outcomes in elevating of families and society. This, in reality, is one of the most noteworthy professions there can be.

The world has delivered probably the best teachers all things considered, who devoted their life towards the upliftment of the societies. Turning the pages of history and unfurling the excellent portrayal of the Education framework, India as the nation of imperishable old stories sacks the conversation. The mentoring framework that is actualized today has started from the belly of the Indian Teaching framework. The primary school was initiated Gurukul, which was viewed as very devout and an ultimate goal to achieve information on Hindu PURANS, VEDAS, UPANISHADS, and specialty of utilizing Weapons. Sages and Maharishis were the guides, who were engaged with giving the virtues and essence of our convention inside the students. If we see a worldwide face of this sort of education framework, names like Socrates, Andrea del Verrocchio, Aristotle, LouAnne Johnson and a lot more will come up who were viewed as the best educators of reasoning, philosophy, values, and qualities.

The present education framework that we have today is pretty much given by the British. With the intrusion of Englishmen in India, because the East India Company required educated work-power, Convent Schools are established, and the Government put resources into these educational organizations. These educational institutions changed the Indian education framework. Time changed, and India got power. A long time passed on; we arrived in the 21st century. The aspect of the mentoring structure changed, the Government made arrangements, and the training framework broke the chains of social marks. There were diverse instructive bodies or sheets for students to select, different classes of schools and some more. Be that as it may, the educator’s job continued as before. Mentors were significantly more qualified and in light of their capacities, students were currently showing signs of improvement esteems alongside astounding education.

These days, we have a few groupings of schools, which take the onus of instructing a kid from the little child days, for example, the Day Care, Playschools and Pre-Nursery. These schools utilize instructors who take the youngsters to an alternate universe of the creative mind. This encourages youthful personalities to explore new things, get hold of their discourse and learning capacities. In the wake of procuring instruction from these schools, youngsters step towards pre-schools and afterward advanced education. A youngster sprouts under the consideration of educators and transforms into a responsible student at more significant levels. During the whole changeability, a teacher is an essential component who develops a person into a unique individual.

The advanced education segment has likewise experienced significant developments. To oblige the expanding request for talented labor in our developing economy, private universities have been set up. These private universities are generally established by industrialists who are knowledgeable with the business patterns, trends, requests, and demands. These colleges are subsidiary by prevalent overseeing bodies like UGC, AICTE, and so forth, which guarantees that quality, keeps an eye on these foundations. Private or Government, all colleges need the extraordinary workforce to make an imprint and to make some ‘genuine’ commitment.

Remembering the changing duties of the education system alongside the significance of keeping the customs unblemished, SGT University has utilized a staff group, which is capable in relevant fields just as reliable in morals. SGTU employs educators from everywhere throughout the world with fluctuated experience levels to ensure that students don’t lose on fundamentals and get changed into worldwide residents.

Read More

Importance of Online Courses for Career Advancement

Education is the most important element that not only changes the evolution of the nation, but changes your own struggling situation, and use to fight with problems. It explores new ideas which in turn generate creativity, resulting in the development of the society and the nation as a whole. In a learning situation, the thing that matters the most is “are you following the things that you’re learning? Without learning it is impossible to grow in career and business.

In the existing education system, one can go for offline courses/Regular courses and online courses. Regular courses have been very relevant in the teaching-learning process. Eye contact between teachers and taught put a great impact on the student’s behavior. Physical presence and mutual interaction among the students in the presence of teachers have a great scope of improvement and to take corrective measures. But in addition to regular courses, one has to build technical and non-technical skills where the presence of a teacher does not matter that much and in this respect online courses become important. More flexibility and freedom in career advancement, self-motivation and time management skills for curious learners, more choice of courses depending on the interest of learner, communication with professionals of different fields and development of technical skills are some of the advantages of online courses. If one wants to build communication skills, get social respect, time management, wealth management, and leadership skills, online courses provide opportunities.

In this context, the nature of courses and the institutions, designing the course plays a very significant role. The institution designing the course should be reputed and the faculty should be shined personality in the relevant field. The shined personality is the evidence of a successful career and profession. National Program on Technical Enhancement Learning(NPTEL)and Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM) are the programs in which experts from IIT’s and Indian Institute of Science are contributing a lot in designing online courses. Developing the concepts from grass root level to the latest development in the field has been the main objective of these courses.

SGT University Gurugram provides an opportunity for students to opt for online courses along with their regular courses. It is the active local chapter of the NPTEL & SWAYAM program. Students and Faculty who are curious learners are enrolling and making the mark in qualifying the examinations. On line certification from IIT’s not only improves your profile but knowledge gained on going through these courses proves to be very helpful in your promotion and placement. These courses are considered under the Faculty Development Program in career advancement scheme as per UGC Guidelines and so teachers may update their knowledge in the field of interest and also take credit for Faculty Development Program (FDP).

Dr. R.C. Sharma
Professor & Head
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science
SGT University, Gurugram

Read More

Career Options – Students Can Opt Commerce After 12th

Students in India choose Commerce in H.S.C. to seek a career in the field of commerce to become an entrepreneur, management executive, economist, and inter-related professional. Contemplating Commerce in Class eleventh twelfth prepares the candidate to pick an assortment of courses at graduation level. This makes ready for a large number of professional alternatives after the twelfth business. It is of a significant advantage that Commerce students are qualified for both Commerce and Arts undergrad program, which gives them a variety of courses to pick.

Career Options in commerce after 12th 

B.Com in Accounting and Commerce

B.Com or B.Com (Hons.) or also known as a bachelor of commerce, is an undergrad program. The course can be finished in a time of 3 years which covers all the parts of business and accounting. Most universities offer B.Com to 10+2 students with specializations in the field of tax assessment, business, and accounting.


BBA LLB is an integrated course that consists of a Bachelor of Business Administration and Bachelor of Legislative Law. It is a college degree in law. The essential capability to get admission in this course is Senior Secondary (10+2) with 50% marks and equivalent. A large number of students who take access to BBA LLB schools in India decide on presumed colleges and universities in the metropolitan cities. Also, students need to qualify B.B.A. L.L.B. selection tests, for example, CLAT, LSAT, and ACLAT to confirm their admission in India’s most reputed and prestigious schools and Universities.

Bachelor of Business Administration or BBA

BBA in Analytics or Bachelor of Business Administration is an undergraduate college degree that prompts a career to become a business management executive or entrepreneur. Students with a B.B.A. generally opt to do a Master of Business Administration or M.B.A. after completing graduation. Commerce students who have finished Class XII or proportionate in any stream can go for this undergrad program. The degree likewise requires specializations in the field of:



International Business

Human Resources


B.C.A. or Bachelor in Computer Applications

Many Commerce students after Twelfth sought for B.C.A. or Bachelor in Computer Application. It is an undergrad program, where students study scripting languages and its related computer, software programming, and computer languages. B.C.A. is offering specialization various computer and its inter-related fields.

B.A (Hons.) in Applied Economics

B.A. Applied Economics or Bachelor of Arts in Applied Economics is an undergrad program that is generally taken up by students from the field of commerce or science. This program is designed for students who are seeking a career in economics. The area of Applied Economics comprises applying monetary investigation to manage financial issues.

The students are trained in quantitative examinations and are acquainted with the utilization of business matters to handle hands-on problems. The course’s prospectus comprises six semesters. The careers springing forward from the course work opens many openings for employment because of its arrangement towards the expert domain instead of just theory.

Commerce students can also choose various options from other courses that are available for the students of arts or humanities.

B.A. in Humanities & Social Sciences

B.A. is a three-year undergrad program in multiple subjects that consist of humanities, sociologies, aesthetic sciences and expressive arts. Some of the top universities offer a B.A. degree. The scope of specializations that are offered in a B.A. educational plan is Economics, Sociology, History, Political Science, and Geography.

B.A. in Arts or Fine Arts or Visual Arts

Students who have completed their H.S.C. with 50% marks or equivalent are eligible to take admission in B.A. in Fine Arts, Bachelor of Arts, and Visual Arts. This three-year undergraduate program is offered by various universities all over India. If you are a passionate artist and have a knack for arts, this course is the perfect fit for you. B.A. in Fine Arts, Arts and Visual Arts offers specialization in:


Drawing and Painting


Applied Arts

Bachelor of Mass Communication and Media Technology:

Bachelor of Mass Communication and Media Technology is a three-year undergraduate degree program. The students can select any of the following specializations in the arena of mass communication and media techniques:

Music & Sound Production

Media Planning


Film & TV

Read More

Over Thinking: Is It a Serious Issue?

Our mind looks for safety and security minutes to minutes and helps us to survive. Thinking is the superior potential of our minds. We all think to make our functions smooth, productive and effective in our day to day life and it helps us for a risk-free and safe life but how people turn up from thinking to over-thinking seems to be a sensitive issue. Is to be an over-thinker a serious issue? The answer can`t fix because it will depend on the choice you want to carry in life. But there is no doubt that over-thinker carry a habit to think, again and again, to remember, again and again, to plan, again and again, to calculate and to judge about right or wrong, good or bad that is more than the need. They think about every possible thing which helped them to feel safe and secure in their life. Gradually, they become so deeply involved in thinking and forget that they are thinking. Once they forget to think that they are thinking than they also become unaware of what they are feeling and how they are feeling. As consequences, they would start living in their head rather than in the actual world. They appear lost and automatic and miss the beautiful moments easily one after another and life does not look like life itself. It seems like living but not alive.  It’s a fact that life does not exist beyond the moment and if something is in our control in this life that is just a single moment in the present. Hence, the antidote for over-thinking is to sense the world rather than think about the world called mindfulness. By the deliberate practice of sensing enhance the awareness and if we create the choice to be in the present moment than awareness will blossom the present moment and life will seem to be fullest itself. It is the simplest one and can be achieved through practice, practice, and commitment to practice only. More than hundreds of experiments have been done all over the world to assess its scientific basis and evidence and suggested that the practice of mindfulness helps to change the state of mind and create new neural pathways and long term committed practice helps to change the trait of the person. The choice is yours whether you want to think about food or you want to eat the food.

Ashwani Pundeer
Assistant Professor
Bachelor in Clinical Psychology
Faculty of Behavioural Sciences
SGT University, Gurgaon

Read More