Evaluation of the Acute Phase Reactants CRP in Unstable Angina Cases
|Barnali Bhattacharya1, Narveer Singh2, DK Sharma3, VH Talib4, Navneet Aggarwal5, Rajesh Ranjan6, SC Mohapatra7
1Researcher, Deptment of Medicine, 4Consultant, Laboratory Medicine, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi. 2,3Department of Medicine, 5,6,7Department of Community Medicine, FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon.
How to cite this article: Bhattacharya B, Singh N, Sharma DK et al. Evaluation of the Acute Phase Reactants CRP in Unstable Angina Cases. J Adv Res Med Sci Tech 2016; 3(2): 1-4.
|Evaluation of the Acute Phase Reactants CRP in Unstable Angina Cases
Unstable angina, a syndrome of symptoms caused by ischemia of the heart muscles, is both frightening and disabling and may herald acute myocardial infarction. The immediate precipitating events of the atherosclerotic plaque responsible for that critical degree of ischemia resulting in the syndrome of unstable angina are progression of atherosclerosis platelet aggregation, thrombosis and vasospasm. Acute phase reactants are proteins in the plasma whose levels increase during acute inflammatory states or secondary to certain types of tissue damage.1 A cross-sectional descriptive study was done in Safdarjung Hospital on 40 subjects and controls to establish the acute phase reactants CRP in unstable angina cases and their relationships. In our study, we found that CRP levels are increased in cases as compared to controls, thus showing a direct correlation.
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Bhattacharya B et al. J. Adv. Res. Med. Sci. Tech. 2016; 3(2) ISSN: 2394-65392
- Presence of ischemic ST and/ or T changes in ECG (ST segment depression-1 mm in one or more lead, with ST remaining horizontal or downsloping for more than 0.08 sec; symmetrical T inversion more than 5 mm).
- Absence of baseline evidences of myocardial infarction. (new Q wave or persistent ST elevation in ECG, rise in levels of cardiac enzymes-SGOT, CPK, LDH).
Subjects having conditions known to be associated with raised acute phase proteins were a basis of exclusion, namely, liver disease, malignancy, major injury surgery within last one month, any acute infective condition, rheumatic fever within the last one month, collagen vascular diseases, osteoarthritis and myocardial infarction within the last one month. Also control group included age and sex-matched normal people. Subjects in this group had to satisfy the criteria: No episode of any acute infection, major injury, surgery in last one month; no evidence of ischaemic heart disease as evident from history examination and resting ECG; not suffering from any chronic illness and pregnant women.
Due to ethical, logistic and socio-economic constraints, coronary angiography could not be performed in all the subjects, hence the diagnosis of the unstable angina was only clinical, and the control group which was considered healthy may have had subjects with abnormal coronary vessels though no findings on history, examination, ECG and baseline investigations.
Table 1 shows that cases and controls are similar in age distribution. There is no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p=0.614).
Table 2 shows that males comprised 67.5 and 82.5% of controls and cases respectively. There was no statistical difference between cases and controls (p=0.124)
J. Adv. Res. Med. Sci. Tech. 2016; 3(2) Bhattacharya B et al.
Table 3 shows that there is significant statistical difference in case and control group w.r.t. diabetes mellitus (p=0.01). Smokers comprised 60 and 52.5% of controls and cases respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between controls and cases on the basis of smoking (p=0.505)..
Table 4 shows that among the two groups, controls and cases, lipid profile is not statistically significant except for triglycerides. For triglycerides, there is a statistically significant difference between controls and cases, triglycerides being significantly higher in the case group (p=0.006).
Table 5 shows that there is a statistically significant difference between cases and controls with respect to the C-reactive protein. CRP is significantly higher in the case group. Covariate analysis was performed adjusting for age, sex, smoking, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, diabetes and hypertension. The results were as follows:-
Table 6 shows that even after adjusting, ESR, CRP and TLC are significantly different in controls and cases.
Discussion and Conclusion
In our study, we attempted to test hypothesis that a relationship exists between acute-phase reactants and unstable angina, especially C-Reactive Protein.
For this study, 80 subjects were enrolled who were divided into two groups: cases who were patients with unstable angina, and controls who were age and sexmatched normal people. Forty cases and 40 controls were taken. All the factors known to cause a rise in acute phase proteins were a basis for exclusion from the study group.
Various studies done in the past like a study by Berk et al.2 found the CRP levels significantly elevated in unstable angina as compared to the control group with no ischemic illness. Another study by Abdelmouttaleb et al.3 in 142 patients with coronary disease (group 1), 37 patients with normal angiograms (group 2), and 37 control healthy subjects found higher level of CRP in patients with unstable angina and previous myocardial infarction than in patients with stable symptoms and group 2 and group 3.
The present study supports this. Besides the increased level of CRP in the case group as compared to the control group (p=0.01098), statistically significant difference was found between the case and control groups in TLC (p=0.0037) and ESR (p=0.0368), TLC and ESR being more in the case group as compared to the control group.
The statistically significant difference between the two groups for CRP, ESR and TLC exists even after adjustments for the other variables thus implicating that the difference in the acute phase reactants in the two groups is not merely due to confounding factors.
Another finding of interest was a statistically significant difference of triglycerides in case and control group
Bhattacharya B et al.
J. Adv. Res. Med. Sci. Tech. 2016; 3(2)
(p=0.0006), triglycerides being significantly higher in the case group. But no statistically significant difference was observed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol or LDLcholesterol.
Conflict of Interest: None
- Harfenist EJ, Murray RK. Plasma Proteins, Immunoglobulins and Clotting Factors. In: Harper’s Biochemistry. 22nd Edn. Prentice Hall Inc, 1990.
- Berk BC, Weintraub WS, Alexander RW. Elevation of C-reactive protein in active coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65: 168-72.
- Abdelmouttaleb I, Danchin N, Hardo C et al. CReactive protein and coronary artery disease: Additional evidence of the implication of an inflammatory process in acute coronary syndromes. Am Heart J 1999; 137: 346-51.
Date of Submission: 18th May 2016
Date of Acceptance: 22nd May 2016