Artificial intelligence

Imparting Legal Education by Conventional Vs. Virtual Classroom Method

The current pandemic brought numerous jurisdictions observed lockdown (partial or complete), has advanced people to switch to technology. This has culminated in the need for digitalization and the promotion of virtual means. The education sector is not aloof to this trend. Perhaps, this sector has been forthcoming in using virtual means to teach, educate people, more so connected to masses.

The virtual classroom may be understood with Plato’s proverb ‘Necessity is the mother of invention’. The imperative need to adopt and function classrooms virtually has been felt lately. It can be opined that unprecedented pandemic has triggered the necessity to work with virtual or digital technology.

In so far as continuing with virtual classroom education in times of this unprecedented pandemic, it raises profound issues of digital illiteracy, limited resources, privacy, or IPR issues. Nonetheless, besides these obstacles, one essential aspect of the virtual learning-education system is the absence of non-verbal communication. Conventional classroom education has a major contribution from nonverbal communication i.e. non-linguistic means. It includes kinesthetic, paralanguage, haptics, olfactory, chronemics forms of expression that not supplement verbal communication but enrich the whole learning process.

A vital question proliferates, as a consequence of the unprecedented situation, whether conventional classroom education is replaced by non-conventional or the virtual classroom. Even more pertinent contention is the significance of nonverbal education imparted to law students. Can advocacy skills be imparted through nonconventional or the virtual classroom?

Distinctly, the black letter law can be taught by a virtual classroom. Black letter law refers to the basic principles of law, generally known and are devoid of dispute or doubt.

There is a plethora of e-books, articles, literature, lectures, videos, webinars, etc. accessible online that facilitates the teaching of the black letter law.

However, the core concern of imparting and inculcating advocacy skills through virtual classrooms exists. Legal education is an amalgamation of black letter law, personality development, practical and clinical learning that results in incumbent law professionals. Their learning is guided and supported by one’s advocacy skills, which is indeed very personal and individualistic. Albeit, this skill is built, developed, and nurtured in the course of every law programme. There are moot courts that build and brush the advocacy skills of a law student.

It may be noted that under the Bar Council of India, Rules on Legal Education, moot court exercise is of mammoth part of legal education. The Rules delineates the need and functioning of moot court exercise in law programmes.

The unprecedented pandemic has impelled academia to devise mechanisms to conduct classroom education and practical or pilot study virtually.

Moreover, an endeavor has been made by many varsities to conduct moot court competitions online. However, it takes one back to the point that does legal education rely on conventional education which in turn involves building advocacy skills in law students, in so far as nonverbal communication is inseparable.

The author is of the view that the seeds of advocacy skills can be sowed by the conventional classroom method because they include inter alia nonverbal communication.

A cursory perusal of qualities that an advocate ought to possess, suggested by Judge Edward Abbott Parry in his book The Seven Lamps of Advocacy (1923) resonates with the aforementioned view. One of the seven lamps of advocacy is the skill or the quality of eloquence. Justice E. Abbott Parry prescribed eloquence as one of the qualities of an Advocate because advocacy skill involves the skillful use of language, effective communication to convince the Bench. Even though the other qualities which are honesty, courage, wit, judgment, fellowship, and industry stand at the same level that of eloquence. The term eloquence does not restrict to way and fluency of speaking or the language used, it is more than that. It can be understood as expressing and communicating lucidly and effectively, be it drafting or oral arguments or submissions. The tone and tenor, the body language, the gestures, the expression of an advocate can be game-changer. Ergo, the conventional mode of legal education cannot be replaced or even substantiated by virtual education completely.

The new-age virtual teaching methodology will supplement conventional classroom training and education. Legal experts across jurisdictions can deliberate and disseminate their proficient knowledge to law students or professionals at the click of a button.

Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that virtual mode will play an assertive role in the overall educational system. It has emerged a new way of virtual education that will progress to the use of artificial intelligence that is devoid of emotional intelligence.

This virtual system might be the need of the hour however, it will not be able to replace the human interface in terms of their personal touch, sensitivity, emotions, tackling, convincing, negotiating, etc. It can, therefore, be concluded that conventional education systems are not inconsequential for professional courses like law and perhaps for the medical field.

Anchal Mittal
Faculty of Law
SGT University

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Artificial Intelligence in Health Care System

Artificial intelligence (AI) offers high precision technology solutions for the diagnosis, prediction of severity, and treatment options of a disease. AI has brought a paradigm shift to the healthcare system, driven by the increasing availability of medical data, and rapid progress of machine learning techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Deep Learning. In healthcare, AI is being used to mimic the human cognitive function in the field such as psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, speech, and facial recognition. A major area that uses AI techniques includes cancer, neurology, endocrine, nutritional, and cardiology.

Read Also: Artificial intelligence – Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

AI is an area of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines that work and react like humans. It comprises the design of “intelligent systems” that receive the relevant information from the source and takes actions to maximize the chances of success.AI-assisted system works in three steps which include i. receiving information as “input data”; ii. data processing using a machine learning algorithm; and iii. “output information” which is then used in decision making and action. The success of an AI system solely depends upon the authenticity of the input data i.e. the information, and the applied machine learning protocol to develop AI system. Here, AI has been employed in several ways to extract the most coherent information that can be used as an identifier for diagnosis and for analyzing disease severity. The researchers are focusing on the development of a new learning algorithm that can handle a large volume of information and provide precise output information in a reasonable time frame.

Read Also: Role of Artificial Intelligence In The Area of HR

We at SGT University working on the development of predictive models using feed-forward and back propagation-Artificial Neural Networks. It is being used to predict the pharmacological activity of new chemical entities and nanomaterials. In addition, it is also applied in the toxicity profiling of new substances.

Dr. Manish Kumar Gupta
Professor
SGT College of Pharmacy
SGT University Gurugram

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“Manufacturing Need” and “Artificial Intelligence” Means

To manufacture” was the need of mankind in times as early as Stone Age, is still a need of today and it will be pretty safe to say that the need will still be persistent in the far future and might even be more prominent than ever. In fact, owning the frontier of Manufacturing technology and being a stalwart in the production business has become very crucial for a country’s overall development. This can be well understood by a quote from a very famous philosopher Karl Marx who said:

“The country that is more developed industrially only shows, to the less developed, the image of its own future”

The inception of manufacturing started as early as the first men walked the face of the earth. Over a period of time, we had refined our ways of manufacturing, starting from the traditional production process (Conversion of raw material to finished product) to an integrated concept of Business level operation. Now Business implies competition and in this case, a very substantial one. As we talk more and more about newer, faster, more efficient, and flexible production systems, we generally talk about the essential tools necessary for this evolution. From the early Industrial Revolution, the Manufacturing industry experienced revolutionary changes which comprised of the introduction of Steam power, Electrical power, Numerical controlled machines, use of automated production lines, advanced Non-Traditional machining, and many more. But the most critical development in my opinion came along with the introduction of computers and programmable control systems. Fixed automation was upgraded to programmable automation and controlling the production process was easy unlike anything seen before. This continued and introduction of Information & communication technology strengthened the manufacturing industry to a greater extent. Now as evolution is a continuous process, along came artificial Intelligence technology to transform the current automated Manufacturing to Smart Manufacturing. A quote from an eminent scholar & Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University, Andrew Ng illustrates this fact:

Electricity transformed every business. Now deep learning and AI has advanced to the point it, too, has the potential to transform every industry. AI will perform manufacturing, quality control, shorten design time, and reduce materials waste, improve production reuse, perform predictive maintenance, and more.”

Artificial intelligence can simply be defined as providing a brain to our machines such that they become intelligent like human beings. This is the simplest definition that I could come up with but in reality, AI is not at all a simple technology. AI is used on three levels in the industry namely: Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), Artificial General Intelligence (AGI )& Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI ). ANI encompasses machines that perform single tasks intelligently like a welding robot that only performs welding operation. AGI is an advanced version of ANI in which the machine learns and develops its own memory database to perform tasks and take decisions on its own. Research is still going on to develop a fully functional Manufacturing system of this type. A close example of this could be the two-armed robot that assembles components without any program, developed by a team of researchers at Siemens Corporate Technology division in Munich, Germany. The third level of AI namely ASI is merely a concept as of now. A machine with intelligence that surpasses that of humans is still a myth but not impossibility.

Newer technologies like IoT (Internet of things) fueled by AI tools like Machine learning, pattern recognition software are going to be the key players to set up the so-called future smart factories. The Manufacturer’s Annual Manufacturing Report 2018 depicted that a major percentage (>90%)of senior manufacturing executives believe that “Smart Factory” digital technologies, including AI, will enable them to increase their productivity and empower staff to work smarter.

“Smart factories have the potential to generate as much as $3.7 trillion in value per year in 2025,” (McKinseyGlobal Report)

Knowing that an evolving Mechanical and Manufacturing sector will bring in lots of opportunities for budding Engineering students of today, we at SGT University focus on the all-round development of our students by providing them the required equipment and guidance. B. Tech Mechanical Engineering students here are practicing with actual robotic arms, simulation setup, CNC machines, etc. and are undertaking basic and advanced courses like Machine learning, Cloud computing, etc. to keep themselves at par with the growing and evolving industry.

Mr. Asad Habeeb
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering

 

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Role of Artificial Intelligence in Food Industry Post-COVID-19

Whether we like it or not COVID-19 has established in our lives. While the world is struggling with the changed order, few countries have crossed the bridge and are slowly getting back to business. India is eagerly waiting for the dust to set and life to begin all over again. How soon we are able to do so is a million-dollar question at this moment. However, what all are sure of – is the need to urgently find a new way, evolve strategies, and be ready for the post COVID scenario.

Back to business

The food industry is slowly but steadily finding its lost ground. In the past few weeks, home delivery services have been resume, and restaurants are seeing a gradual spike in numbers. With no-contact deliveries and online payments, consumers are fast gaining confidence in ordering food from restaurants online. While consumers are also eagerly waiting to get back to eating out, the industry itself is trying to find ways to make the consumer experience more safe, hygienic, and assuring. Post-COVID, a lot is sure to change in the way people plan their eating outs. Restaurants, on the other hand, have to re-invent themselves in the way they cook, serve, and meet the high standards of hygiene. And the only answer is – shift towards automation and Artificial Intelligence for the benefits of all. The minimal use of human hand assures the food is safe, hygienic, and perfect to taste as every aspect is pre-programmed.

Also ReadArtificial intelligence – Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

Automation, the way forward

In this fast-changing scenario, the food industry should brace itself to more stringent rules for non-home cooked food preparations. One can easily foresee the introduction of strict guidelines by the government taking the benchmark of food safety and hygiene a notch higher. In many parts of the world traditional cooking equipment such as tandoor and gas stoves, which are both risky as well as unfavorable for the environment, have been banned in commercial spaces. While new rules might soon be laid down to beat the virus at all levels, consumers themselves will be more discerning in times to come. They will pick restaurants that follow high standards of hygiene and where social distancing is practiced in the best possible way. A recent study done by an Indian restaurant-tech-solution platform cited more and more people are moving towards digital ordering and payment, where they do not have to touch anything other than sanitized cutlery during their restaurant visits.

Read Also, COVID 19: How to Prevent Corona Virus Through Hand Cleansing

The professional kitchens are in for mega changes world over. Restaurants will have to upgrade themselves with new-age technology which depends a lot on Artificial Intelligence and complete automation. Smart combi-ovens are the ‘new normal’. These smart appliances can be programmed in such a way that they can cook the best meals with minimal intervention. They can make any chef’s craftsmanship come true with ease. From baking, steaming to giving the final finish with the right color crust, aroma, and texture; they can do it all. What’s more, most of the intelligent equipment comes with automatic self-cleaning function, and hence nothing is left to chance when it comes to matters of cleanliness and hygiene. Even the HACCP data can be retrieved from the units automatically which can become a mandatory requirement in the future for commercial kitchens to maintain.

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Machine Learning – A New Way of Life

Humans are known to reduce their workload by utilizing their intelligence to make the task easier and more comprehensible. Be it inventing the art of designing the wheel or discovering scientific advancements that have helped us to be ahead of all the species. Humans can teach living beings with its dominance however humans have also crafted the skill to train non-living items such as computer models so as to improvise their jobs. The idea of Machine Learning is correlated to the idea of Artificial Intelligence and its astonishing to understand that all these concepts were prevalent back in the 18th century. The very first machine which was trained to do jobs voluntarily was an automated chess-playing machine. The device had some predefined moves fixed using several mechanical levers. Although the application was very plain however it was revolutionary at that time to design a chess machine where one would compete with a machine. Tracing through the timeline, we find another application of AI where Alan Tuning helped in ending World War II just by inventing the machine that could decode a highly complicated code by the Germans in a couple of minutes.

The field of Artificial Intelligence has always been very interesting and full of possibilities. Before diving deeper let us understand why we need Machine learning? The programming approach that we have been using for problem-solving is a traditional approach. Wherein we provide a problem, provide a code as if how to solve a problem and come to a solution. However, in this approach, most of the logical thinking is done by the human brain, even if the logic behind the problem is redundant. In order to cope up with this situation we devised a process whereby using the problem statement and the previous output of similar logic, the machine not only processes the code but also remembers the key features of the problem so as to solve it. This approach made a revolutionary change in all peripherals of technology.

For understanding how a machine learning model works, let’stake an example of a student who is joining his very first day in school. The teacher teaches by showing a red apple that it’s an apple. Similarly, by showing the image of every fruit and describing the features of every fruit, the teacher explains it all. Now when the student is asked to detect the name of a fruit that is orange in color and tastes sweet with multiple seeds in it, he can very easily say it’s orange. This is exactly how machine learning works. It is important to note that the dataset or in the above example the instances that the teacher gave the student just to explain the fruits, plays a very important role. If any data in the dataset is missing or is incorrect then it directly affects the accuracy.

Nowadays Machine Learning is the new hype. Almost every possible field be it agriculture, cybersecurity, health sector, transport sector, finds some application or the other of ML. Now with machines taking over most of the sectors, threats for unemployment are a concern. However, we need to understand that in the application phase, ML will generate more jobs for the mass. Just like with the invention of cellular communication, there was a wave of employment. In a nutshell, Machine Learning is a great invention of humankind which would play as a major catalyst in our motto for futuristic advancement.

Manpreet Singh Bajwa
Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Technology
SGT University

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Artificial Intelligence – Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

“We want to stand at the intersection of computers and humanism” –(Steve Jobs)

Who can forget those days when one time or the other we complained about our school teachers being partial to some particular kids? We called them the teacher’s pets. Didn’t we? School years are made of these bittersweet memories.

However, Artificial intelligence or AI is about to change all that. So, what is AI exactly? Well, Google defines it as the arena of computer science that deals with the creation of intelligent machines that work like human beings.  In recent times, AI is making necessary changes in our present education scenario. The education system is being redefined by ever-changing technology.

A teacher is assigned with the task of handling each and every child in a class and it is a difficult responsibility. But, assisted by AI this difficult task becomes easy. AI technology has the capacity to handle a vast array of work. It, therefore, becomes important for students to understand this technology and for educationists and teachers to incorporate this technology into their curriculum. Some of the best colleges for engineering offer an AI course which makes the students future-ready.

How does it work?

Machine learning tools can manage data easily. It can detect errors and frauds. AI algorithms can be used for scoring purposes and reaching full-proof results. It can be used in making complex calculations and creating scenario-based simulations.  It briefly put is a very feasible machine learning tool which when combined with human efforts can lead to an impeccable outcome.

Future of AI in the education sector

Skeptics believe that AI will take over human beings. Others believe that AI is not full proof mainly because of the fact that it doesn’t have human emotions and lacks emotional quotient.

However, AI specialists beg to differ. Artists such as painters, for example, are trying to explore and exploit AI for co-creating artworks. Also, statistics are also in favor of AI. For instance, in the US while on one hand 16% of jobs were lost to machine technology; on the other hand, 13.6 million were created the previous year. Also, in the education sector, AI can soon read human expressions too.

The human element in teaching is going to stay. We need to restructure our self. By incorporating AI and AI-related tools in our education sector, we can change ourselves and reinvent ourselves. And as they say ’Change is only constant’; this is one change that will create a better future for all of us.

If considering keeping pace with the future, one can pursue a course in AI from SGT University, one of the top universities for engineering in India.

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Artificial Intelligence is Revolutionizing Education, Know-How!

Since the inception of the institution of education, the methods of teaching and the bond shared between learners and educators have evolved significantly. Teaching methods across the globe have become more structured to give better, and more streamlined results. This transformation can be majorly attributed to the ongoing intervention of technology.

The relationship between educators and students is changing, where educators have become more approachable and much better at understanding their students’ perspectives. This is shrinking age-old accessibility gaps and enabling tailormade learning experiences for different learners with varied needs. Artificial intelligence (AI), with multiple technological applications, has a big role in changing old trends in education space. Let’s see how.

AI is simplifying administrative tasks

AI basically means to focuses on machines that are designed to be intelligent enough to work and react like humans. AI has automated drab administrative tasks and cut down on time and effort. Teachers used to put in things like assessing students’ work and grading exams. With this, teachers can now put their energies towards engaging with the students and dealing with challenges that they are facing.

Making quality education accessible

In an age where technology is shrinking the world, it is also making education more accessible to a larger number of people in the form of smart content. They often offer education through virtual content like lectures, video conferencing, etc. Even a few books have transformed as AI systems are now being used to create digital textbooks for specific topics/ subjects. This is and this will help in engaging students of all academic grades and ages.

Tailoring education as needed

Each student possesses different learning abilities and pace of absorption. They put in place systems that work according to the needs of the students.

Universal access for all students

AI-powered learning system makes classrooms accessible to all, including those who are from a different country. The massive open online courses (MOOCS) shall have been a new era of education.

The library can identify users

AI can help you in discovering great books and accentuate your reading habits. The reader can ask AI for books of their choice and the AI helps in enlisting books according to the reader’s interest. AI serves very much like a librarian albeit an artificial librarian with great efficiency.

The role of Artificial Intelligence is significantly increasing and creating adaptive teaching-learning techniques. With this plenty of benefits, AI’s presence is ever-swelling and in spite of its anticipated significance in education space, it might surprise us with even greater value in the future.

By Dr. Gurpreet Singh Tuteja

Pro-Vice-Chancellor

SGT University

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Artificial intelligence- Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

“We want to stand at the intersection of computers and humanism” – (Steve Jobs)

Who can forget those days when one time or the other we complained about our school teachers being partial to some particular kids? We called them the teacher’s pets. Didn’t we? School years are made of these bittersweet memories.

However, Artificial intelligence or AI is about to change all that. So, what is AI exactly? Well, Google defines it as the arena of computer science that deals with the creation of intelligent machines that work like human beings. In recent times, AI is making necessary changes in our present education scenario. The education system is being redefined by ever-changing technology.

A teacher is assigned with the task of handling each and every child in a class and it is a difficult responsibility. But, assisted by AI this difficult task becomes easy. AI technology has the capacity to handle a vast array of work. It, therefore, becomes important for students to understand this technology and for educationists and teachers to incorporate this technology into their curriculum.

How does it work?

Machine learning tools can manage data easily. It can detect errors and frauds. AI algorithms can be used for scoring purposes and reaching full-proof results. It can be used in making complex calculations and creating scenario-based simulations. It briefly put is a very feasible machine learning tool which when combined with human efforts can lead to impeccable outcomes.

Future of AI in education sector

Sceptics believe that AI will take over human beings. Others believe that AI is not full proof mainly because of the fact that it doesn’t have human emotions and lacks emotional quotient.

However, AI specialists beg to differ. Artists such as painters, for example, are trying to explore and exploit AI for co-creating artworks. Also, statistics are also in favor of AI. For instance, in the US while on one hand 16% of jobs were lost to machine technology; on the other hand, 13.6 million were created the previous year. Also, in the education sector, AI can soon read human expressions too.

The human element in teaching is going to stay. We need to restructure our self. By incorporating AI and AI related tools in our education sector, we can change ourselves and reinvent ourselves. And as they say ’Change is only constant’; this is one change that will create a better future for all of us.

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