Article: Reverse Migration due to COVID-19

The COVID-19 caused havoc all over the country and disrupted the life of the people in many ways but the most visible effect is the plight of migrants. The lockdown imposed to contain the coronavirus has made the migrants return to their home state. Due to this, the second largest mass migration after the partition has witnessed by India. The closure of the economy leads to an uncertain future in front of the migrants. To secure the livelihood of the migrants, there are something concrete needs to be done otherwise this reverse migration will gradually hamper the economy also.

India has seen intra-state migration for various reasons including better employment opportunities, better wages, marriage, better education opportunities, better living standards, etc. The general trend that follows in the case of migration in India is majorly from rural to urban. As per Census 2011, 54 million people were migrants across the states, and out of those 38 million people were headed towards urban areas. The rural to urban migration has been a major part of migration flow in India. The rural to urban migration accounts for 62% of intra-state migration in India. Work/employment opportunity is the biggest reason for migration with 33% of people migrates for this reason in intra-state rural to urban migration. Out of 79 million rural to urban migrants in India, 50 million migrants which constitute 64% were marginal workers or non-workers. The majority of migrants in cities or towns were engaged in informal sectors – such as on a contractual basis in construction sites or factories – having hardly any access to benefits or social security.

In the scenario of nation-wide lockdown, the lack of social security or fear of losing the source of livelihood and shelter has compelled the migrants to return their homes. According to the World Bank report on migration in the COVID-19 crisis, more than 40 million people were affected by the lockdown and over 50,000-60,000 people returned to rural areas from urban centres in just a few days. However, the future is not certain for those who returned to their home in rural areas. The mass return of migrants to rural areas increased the supply of laborers in the rural economy. This excessive supply of labourer in agriculture increases the disguised unemployment which would further decrease agricultural productivity. The reverse migration also increases the demand for work under MGNREGA which would create pressure on the scheme. However, the government increased assistance to migrants through the MGNREGA scheme but it is not enough. The excessive dependence on agriculture and the lack of diversified sources of income overburdened the rural economy. The reverse migration also creates a shortage of labour supply for industries in urban centres such as the construction industry which employed most of the migrants. However, as the economy is reopening again, many migrants may return to urban centres to sustain their livelihood but it is vague to say that this fills the vacuum of the labour shortage.

Though reverse migration creates chaos, it also provides an opportunity to revive the rural economy. There is a need for investing and developing labor-intensive sectors such as livestock, fisheries, and food processing sector so that it can absorb the excessive labour supply and productively contribute to the economy. The rural economy often deals with poor infrastructure, we can use labour to improvise the infrastructure in both farm and non-farm activities. We need to create more and diverse opportunities in rural areas otherwise this mass reverse migration could lead to more poverty and inequality.

Abhilasha Semwal
Deputy Manager- Research & Events
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Role of Physiotherapy in Cardiopulmonary Conditions

When someone talks about the rehabilitation of cardiopulmonary conditions, the specialists which come forward are the cardiopulmonary physical therapist. Cardiopulmonary physiotherapy is an area of physiotherapy that specializes in the prevention, rehabilitation, and restoration of patients with diseases of lungs and heart.

The patient having cardiopulmonary diseases suffer from breathlessness, increased sputum production, a decrease in gas exchanges, reduced exercise capacity and increased fatigue, chest pain, etc.  The Cardiopulmonary therapist helps the patients to overcome the physical and functional impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions due to the impairments of structures and functions of the cardiovascular and pulmonary system. They also play a significant role in the management of various conditions such as Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and many more.

The core component of cardiopulmonary physiotherapy interventions is exercise prescriptions. There are various methods and techniques which are used in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation viz. deep breathing exercises, breathing facilitation exercises, percussions and vibrations, coughing, mobility assistance, and individually tailored exercises, etc. Through these techniques a cardiopulmonary physical therapist can help patients to reduce breathlessness, increase functional capacity, reduce the exacerbations of conditions and thereby reduce the number of hospital admissions; it also enhances mental wellbeing and improves the quality of life.

There are various settings where the cardiopulmonary physical therapist are helpful for the patients to improve quality of life such as ICU, indoor and outdoor patient department, home care, clinics and rehabilitation  In intensive care unit (ICU) where some patients are on a ventilator, there are chances of accumulations of secretions in lungs, decrease oxygenation. In this setting, the physical therapist helps to improve ventilation, facilitate removal of secretions, and improve management of shortness of breath for better function. The patient education and interventions related to corrections of breathing patterns are done through various breathing techniques and manual therapy such as chest percussion and vibrations to mobilize secretions.

In outpatients and rehabilitation clinics individualized education related to the patient’s condition, how to respond in case of increased symptoms, and graded exercise training in form of endurance, resistance, and respiratory muscle training is provided to maximize the patient’s functional level.

During this pandemic COVID-19, the cardiopulmonary therapist has a significant role, as the person with COVID -19 presents with respiratory symptoms like pneumonia and breathlessness and fever. The therapist provides breathing retraining and helps to remove secretions and reduces acute respiratory distress like symptoms.

Dr. Sonia Pawaria
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Physiotherapy
SGT University

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Redefining Life After Covid-19 by Dr. Umesh Chandra

The life during lockdown because of COVID -19 has led human civilization to brood over the existing way of life. Undoubtedly, the human race has attained the greatest inventions to make life more and more convenient with the passing time. Mechanical science and medical sciences have brought out marvelous tools and ways to make human life smooth. To understand this, one can see the examples from the agriculture sector, health, and space sciences. The new inventions have made human life better than their previous lifestyle in history. But, these new developments have also brought the dark side of the human mind when people started exploiting nature and resources in the name of development and growth.


Apart from this exploitation by the people, the new lifestyle made them away from nature. In fact, human beings became detached from nature. Scientific inventions having the objective to produce betterment in life were getting changed as the apparatus of lavish and luxury. One can see the journey of electrical science from bulb to air-condition apparatus. The invention of electricity has brightened the human civilization as once the search of metal has changed the lives of people on the earth. But we are also observing that several instruments are becoming an integral part of human life by the time.

Read Also: COVID 19: How to Prevent Corona Virus Through Hand Cleansing

The significant question arises here that is human life is possible with the less use of the tools and instruments invented by advanced science. The objective answer will be ‘yes, it is possible’. The point to be understood is that one can restrict need but the greed is unstoppable. This thought leads one to rethink the exploitation of sources and resources around the globe. It is the responsibility of every human being to save nature and resources and lead life according to the path of nature because it gives all that is required for survival.

required for survival

Read Also: The COVID-19 Lockdown Period and the Faculty of Law: A Report Card

Surviving close to nature provides good health also. The natural therapies and yoga therapies are producing good results in current times. Against the strong fort of scientific medical sciences of the modern era, these therapies have rebuilt their space. These have been part of human lives for centuries and people were in natural surroundings with these techniques and tools and surviving with the great zeal for life. Human life was guided by the divine nature for years as Alexander Pope says in an Essay on Man,

Know then thyself, presume not God to scan;

The proper study of mankind is a man.

So, the exploitation of nature and its resources must be stopped because nature is divine and gives breath and immunity to mankind. The pandemic, COVID 19 faced in current times is not the last one. There will be a number of pandemic in the future if the lust of human beings will not be stopped soon. Therefore it is the best time to take an oath to save nature for the sake of mankind.

Dr. Umesh Chandra
Asst. Professor
Center for Language and Communication,
SGT University

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Role of Artificial Intelligence in Food Industry Post-COVID-19

Whether we like it or not COVID-19 has established in our lives. While the world is struggling with the changed order, few countries have crossed the bridge and are slowly getting back to business. India is eagerly waiting for the dust to set and life to begin all over again. How soon we are able to do so is a million-dollar question at this moment. However, what all are sure of – is the need to urgently find a new way, evolve strategies, and be ready for the post COVID scenario.

Back to business

The food industry is slowly but steadily finding its lost ground. In the past few weeks, home delivery services have been resume, and restaurants are seeing a gradual spike in numbers. With no-contact deliveries and online payments, consumers are fast gaining confidence in ordering food from restaurants online. While consumers are also eagerly waiting to get back to eating out, the industry itself is trying to find ways to make the consumer experience more safe, hygienic, and assuring. Post-COVID, a lot is sure to change in the way people plan their eating outs. Restaurants, on the other hand, have to re-invent themselves in the way they cook, serve, and meet the high standards of hygiene. And the only answer is – shift towards automation and Artificial Intelligence for the benefits of all. The minimal use of human hand assures the food is safe, hygienic, and perfect to taste as every aspect is pre-programmed.

Also ReadArtificial intelligence – Future of Education Through a New Spectrum

Automation, the way forward

In this fast-changing scenario, the food industry should brace itself to more stringent rules for non-home cooked food preparations. One can easily foresee the introduction of strict guidelines by the government taking the benchmark of food safety and hygiene a notch higher. In many parts of the world traditional cooking equipment such as tandoor and gas stoves, which are both risky as well as unfavorable for the environment, have been banned in commercial spaces. While new rules might soon be laid down to beat the virus at all levels, consumers themselves will be more discerning in times to come. They will pick restaurants that follow high standards of hygiene and where social distancing is practiced in the best possible way. A recent study done by an Indian restaurant-tech-solution platform cited more and more people are moving towards digital ordering and payment, where they do not have to touch anything other than sanitized cutlery during their restaurant visits.

Read Also, COVID 19: How to Prevent Corona Virus Through Hand Cleansing

The professional kitchens are in for mega changes world over. Restaurants will have to upgrade themselves with new-age technology which depends a lot on Artificial Intelligence and complete automation. Smart combi-ovens are the ‘new normal’. These smart appliances can be programmed in such a way that they can cook the best meals with minimal intervention. They can make any chef’s craftsmanship come true with ease. From baking, steaming to giving the final finish with the right color crust, aroma, and texture; they can do it all. What’s more, most of the intelligent equipment comes with automatic self-cleaning function, and hence nothing is left to chance when it comes to matters of cleanliness and hygiene. Even the HACCP data can be retrieved from the units automatically which can become a mandatory requirement in the future for commercial kitchens to maintain.

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What’s the Difference Between a Cold, the Flu, and Coronavirus?

Some common manifestations such as fever, cough, cold and body-ache occur when we feel a cold, the flu, and Coronavirus also called COVID-19. How would you know the distinction? Here’s data to assist you with bettering comprehend the symptoms, signs, and medications.

Healthcare specialists note that the novel coronavirus, influenza, and allergies have some particular signs.

  • The main symptom of the novel Coronavirus is fever, tiredness, dry cough, and shortness of breath.
  • This season’s cold virus has side effects like the novel Coronavirus, for example, fever and body ache, yet flu doesn’t cause shortness of breath.

Here we have discussed how Common Cold, flu, and COVID-19 can be distinguished:

Coronavirus or COVID-19

Coronavirus or COVID-19 recently found in people that are spreading rapidly around the world. Four different strains of Coronavirus can generally cause primary flu manifestations (like the common cold). However, COVID-19 can cause severe sickness in specific groups. For instance, older individuals and individuals of any age with extreme health conditions — like lung infection, heart disease, asthma, and diabetes. These diseases appear to be at more danger of developing COVID-19. There’s presently no vaccine or antibody for COVID-19.

Read Also, Questions and Answers On Covid-19

Symptoms of COVID-19 can include:

  • Fever or chills
  • Dry cough
  • Headaches
  • Body-aches
  • Sore throat
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing
  • Tiredness

The seriousness of COVID-19 symptoms occurs from moderate to severe. However, if you have come in close contact with a COVID-19 patient or you’ve made a trip to COVID-19 affected country, all things considered; your manifestations are expected to COVID-19. If your symptoms are mild or moderate, you will probably be directed to remain at home to shield others from sickness and follow the suggested direction for self-care. In case you’ve alluded to a health care Centre, make sure to call ahead and let them know your symptoms before you go in.


While you may feel wretched when you have chills, the symptoms are commonly mild to moderate contrasted with infections like season’s cold. A virus can cause any of these body manifestations:

  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Body-ache
  • Fatigue
  • Sneezing
  • Watery eyes
  • Headaches

A common cold will keep going on generally for 7 to 10 days. Most of the symptoms are not brought about by the disease itself, yet rather our body’s immune system attempting to dispose of it. Most cold infections leave the patient and give their bodies time to battle them. Your immune system is the best guard against the common cold.


Seasonal flu (influenza) can generally appear ahead quick and frantic. It’s a common respiratory disease brought about by an infection that influences your nose, throat, and lungs and can last from 5 to 7 days. Here are some common symptoms of the flu:

  • Fever or chills
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Cough
  • Aches and pains
  • Runny or stuffy nose

Unlike Coronavirus, seasonal cold or influenza can be forestalled with a decent method of inoculation. If you have got an influenza shot or this season’s cold virus, your body’s manifestations are commonly milder than if you didn’t get seasonal flu shot. A high number of people with season’s flu get well without clinical treatment. Remain at home and get a lot of rest and liquids and treat a fever with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.

Read Also: Should I Test Coronavirus?

Remember that antibiotics won’t help to cure any viral diseases. Generally, these infections need to run their course, so the best thing we can do is wait and watch. If your viral symptoms get improve, and if after some days manifestations suddenly get worse, you should contact your health care professional who can assess whether you may have a bacterial infection.

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Should I Test Coronavirus?

Ways to find if you are Corona virus-infected or not; you need to take one out of these five tests.

Coronavirus has already affected people globally. Now, it is also spreading in India without showing any abate sign, unlike other parts of the world. Now the question arising in the minds of people all over, how safe is I, and my family?

Here SGTU has made a small effort to collate the relevant information. It is essential to know which test we need to see if we are affected by this virus or not? This deadly virus has already killed thousands of people all over the world.

Name of the tests that can detect COVID-19

Here is the full information that you need to know how to detect the RNA in blood. COVID-19 or Coronavirus has still no test kit, but when you visit the hospital, several tests can avail results related to this virus. The tests are performed to verify if the person is COVID affected or not.

What happens during a Corona Virus or COVID-19 test?

The lab will collect the following samples from you:

  • A Swab test or Cotton test:

The lab will take a sample from your throat or nose with the help of clean cotton.

  • A Nasal Aspirate:

A saline solution is injected into your nose, and a sample will be suctioned gently

  • A tracheal Aspirate:

A thin and light tube known as a bronchoscope being gently pushed to your lungs, and a sample will be acquired.

  • A Sputum Test:

It is a variation found in your mucus found in your lungs is collected or coughed out from your nose with a cotton swab.

  • A Blood Test:

Variants of samples collected to get evaluated to detect the virus. It can also conduct through a Blanket test for all kinds of Coronaviruses. It can be acquired through a specialized gene sequencing test that is considered as a marker for COVID-19.

When you need a navel coronavirus test?

There are some specific measurements and symptoms to decide either you should go for this test or not:

  • If you have traveled or visited in any corona infection affected areas around the globe
  • In case you have come in contact with such a person who has moved to such areas

Is there any cure or antibiotic for novel Coronavirus or COVID-19?

As of now, there is no antibiotic available in the market to cure this deadly microorganism. Developed countries like America, Japan are testing and trying to make antibiotics for this disease.

We appeal to you to pay attention to small details related to COVID-19 so that you can keep you and your family safe.

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